After the passing of the fourteenth amendment, adapatation of said law opened the door for all-around freedom for Blacks (especially in the South). However, it was evident that baby-steps were needed to be taken before the former slaves were given the same treatment as whites. The first step taken was allowing Black males to vote (freedom to vote). The southern states basically had to choose between allowing their former property to vote or not allowing them to vote and ultimately losing political power.
In the short term (prior to 1877), Black people were granted the right to vote, but were strictly limited. They were forced to take literacy tests before they could cast their votes. More times than not, black people didn’t even come out to vote due to the fear that white supremists instilled in black voters by threatening them.
In the long term (prior to 2010), the freedom to vote for black people was defintitely realized. In 1869, the 15th amendment was passed and made it so there was a place in the constitution that stated you couldn’t deny the right to vote based on race. This enabled more black people to vote (with government backing) but they were (to a certain point) still afraid because of the white supremacists. However, in every election after the 1960’s, black people no longer were segregated and were complete equals in the US.