Patriotism seemed to take a negative turn during World War I according to Eric Foner. Instead of celebrating the culture of the United States, people focused on those who were critical of the U.S’s role in the war or anybody that seemed politically rebellious. Rather than focusing on how patriotism was used to higher the hopes of American citizens during the war, Foner comments mostly on how it was used as a defense mechanism and scare tactic within the country. After reading Foner’s comments on patriotism it seems that people’s freedom of voice and opinion on the war and political stance were restricted. Patriotism during World War I encouraged some incredibly degrading acts such as having to kiss the American flag publicly. It seemed that patriotism was unable to occur positively during World War I since the people were so afraid of their lack of freedom of expression. Foner’s coverage of this topic is interesting having taken it from a negative perspective but was there any positive aspects of patriotism during World War I? Were immigrants more suspected of being disloyal towards America during the war?

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