Chapter 19 is titled “surprises” because new kinds of people started to emerge in the 1960s and 70’s. these groups of people were silent for so long and during these times, they found the courage to get out from underneath the rock.
Women were one of these groups. they already obtained voting rights, but they just like men, they wanted more. Since the beginning of time, women have been known as housewives, they cooked, cleaned and took care of the children. world war 2 brought change to this, that is when women stepped up to the plate. but by the 60s they were getting even more recognition. 23 million woman workers earned a paycheck and their numbers were growing. one thing that was surprising is that many women started going to jail due to sit ins and protests. age did not matter; older women like Ell Baker, Amelia Boynton and younger women like Gloria Richardson and Annelle Ponder. Fannie Lou Hammer became famous for her quote “I’m sick of tired of being sick and tired”. women are known for their gossip, but now instad of talking about nothing they started to talk about “the problem”. women all knew what it was, and they started to do something about it. this was a very important movement because women wanted to be recognized, and in the summer of 1964 women went on strike against their own husbands, they didn’t cook or clean or do anything. Shirley Chisholm a black congresswoman said “the law cannot do it for us, we must do it for ourselves. women in this country must be revolutionaries”
Another group were the Indians. people thought that they were gone but they were always here, it is their country. one indian was arrested in the fish ins, he was a veteran of the Vietnam war. once he was arrested he stated “i hereby renounce further obligation in service or duty to the united states”. hat is saying something.Indians adopted the American way and they fought back with newspapers. they created editorials and started their own paper, Akwesasne Notes. one of the most surprising event is when more than 600 Indians took over Alcatraz. they made it the center for indian life. they wanted to depollute the air and start fishing again, basically go back to their native ways. But the U.S kicked them out. so the Indians started to do something about it. in 1969, the indians started a convocation where they spoke out.
we have learned from the past that being silent does nothing. if you want to start a revolution you must speak, and then you will succeed.