Basic principle- The same amount of labor which he has given to society in one form, he receives back in another
Equal Right- Exchange of commodities= Exchange of equal values; Unit of standard= Labor
A right of inequality in every right- unequal labor hours based on the person’s need
Proletarians and Communists
The aim of Communist:
1.Formation of proletarians as a class
3.conquest-political power bt the proletarians
Distinctive feature of the communist-
1.not the abolition of the existing property relation
2.abolishion of all private property
Wage Labor creates “Capital” which is a collective product/social power
Property is just the consequence of Wage labor and Capital
Capital as a public property vs Private property
Labor should be converted into capital, Individual land, or any entity that can be monopolized
So abolishment of CapIndividual property-> automatically with abandon wage labor
Communist must abolish Nationality and Statehood
In order for the Proletarians to gain political supremacy, the working men shouldn’t have any country.
End result would be-
1.Antagonism between different classes within nation vanishes
2.hostility of one nation towards another comes to an end
The one common feature of all past ages is the exploitation of one society by another and this can only disappear when we abolish the entire class system
Steps of Revolution:
1.Raise proletarians to the position of the ruling class
2.With political supremacy, pro. will seize all capital from the labour.
3.Centralize all production in the hands of State
What is the state for Marx?
-> Proletariat organized as a ruling class
The ultimate motto for Communist is-
“The free development of each is the condition for the free development of all”
Bourgeoise and Proletarians
Modern bourgeoisie came from ruins of feudal society
It established- new classes, conditions of oppression, forms of struggle in place of old ways.
With the concept of Free Trade- exploitation veiled by religious and political illusions now substituted by naked, shameless, direct, brutal exploitation
Bourgeoise has torn away from a sentimental veil into a mere money relation
How is it different from the previous societies?
-constant revolutionizing of production
-uninterrupted disturbance of social condition
-everlasting uncertainty and agitation
Bourgeoise(through the exploitation of world market)-provided cosmopolitan character(to prod. and cons.)
Consequence is political centralization and everything is lumped into one nation
Epidemic of over-production- he won’t be able to control what he produced
ie. his condition is too narrow to comprise the wealth created by him
The modern working class proletarians can live only as long as they find work and work only as long their labor increases capital
The price of a commodity( including labor)= cost of production
Because of the fruits of bourgeoisie such as machinery and improved communication, proletarians need to centralize the numerous local struggles into one national struggle between classes
The other intermediate classes( artisans, shopkeepers etc) with wither away and hence to sustain they have to join the proletarians in the struggle
1.precedding class got an upper hand by the majority to their conditions of appropriation
2.proletarians can’t become masters of productive forces; they instead by destroying the previous mode of production hence every other previous mode.
3.This movement is different because- previously it was a movement of minorities in the favor of minorities. Proletariats are conscious, independent movt. of majority in the interest of the majority
Man is a species-being- free being/ treats himself as universal
This universality of man also means that Nature is a part of his inorganic body
Estranged labor- Alienating man from himself, his life activity, nature takes away the species part from him
Marx then differentiates Man and Animal and there are two parts-
1.Animal is identical with its life activity but man has consciousness and will to perform free activity; Estranged labor reverses this relation transforming him into an essential being( just for existence-same as animals)
2.Animals produce only for their immediate physical need, but on the contrary, man produces even when he is free from physical needs
Objectification of Labor is thus the objectification of man’s species life.
When the product of his labor( an object) for him is an alien, hostile, powerful independent of him, then the master of this object is also viewed from the same lens.
Hence, Self-estrangement can only manifest through real practical relationship to other men.
Private property is not the cause but the consequence of alienated labor
Private property contains two parts-
1.product of alienated labor
2.means by which labor alienated himself, the realization of this alienation
Relationship between Estranged labor, Private property, and Wages
1.In a political economy, the soul is labor( yet it is entitled to nothing) and private property-everything
2.Wage and Private property are identical in that neither cause Estranged labor( but are the consequence and cause respectively.
3.Higher wages for slaves- wouldn’t conquer for the worker or for his labor his status and dignity
1.everything that appears to the worker as alienation/estrangement (same for nonworkers)
2.Worker’s real and practical attitude to production appears as theoretical for non-workers
3.non-workers does everything against worker( which he then does it to himself) but the non-worker wouldn’t do that to himself.
Legal Relations and forms of state do not depend on the good will to go further or the general development of the human mind but rather depend on the material conditions of life( Hegel calls it civil society), And the latter Marx thinks is based on the political economy.In the social Production of life, men enter into definite relations- relations of production and forces of production. The relation of production forms the economic structure of the society which in other words constitute the “Base” based on which “superstructure” such as legal and political systems are formed.The consciousness of men does not determine their being but vice versa. At a point when the productive forces have developed and the relations of productions have matured to their full potential creates a conflict between the forces of prod. and the existing relations of production, and ultimately leads to an epoch of Social Revolution. This transformation should be divided into two parts- Material Transformation of the economic condition as opposed to the (Byproduct)Ideological Transformation
For Marx, the whole of society is divided into two parts-property owners and propertyless workers.
He critiques Political Economy using the following points –
1.It doesn’t disclose the source of division between labor and capital followed by capital and land.
2.It creates Competition: which is defined by stating political economy as a system for the avarice( greedy) and the war amongst the avarice is called Competition
3. The fundamental flaw is that-
a.PE creates a monopoly, feudal propery and corporations
b.Competition, Division of landed property, Crafty liberty( serving few) are considered as the random, violent and
mediated consequences of point a.
c.But what marx this is that these problems in point b( Competition etc) are/and is the natural, inevitable and
necessary consequence of point a.
Economic Fact which serves basis for the Estranged labor theory is that the worker becomes an even cheaper commodity than the commodity that he creates.
The product of Labor is the labor which takes shape as an meterial object; this is called the Objectification of labor
This in the climate of the political economy interprets as the following and its consequences-
realization of labor= loss of reality of workers->(leads to) Starving to death
the objectification= the loss of object -> robbed of his basic necessities
appropriation of the object= Estrangement/Alienation-> The more object the worker produces the fewer he posesses and the more he falls under the dominion of CAPITAL.
Summary- Production of worker= Objectification & Loss of his object, the product= Estrangenment
Role of Nature or External World as a means of life in two aspects
a. Needs the nature to create his object
b. needs nature for sustainanace
and hence, his role as worker-> sustainance and sustainance-> worker. Held in Bondage
According to Marx, there are two types of Estrangenment-
a.Result: The estrangenement between the worker and his product of his labor that stems from the bondage that he is being held by the nature
b.Act of production: Due to coersion and force, he is aliegnated from himself called External Labor