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Assignment #15

Annotated Bibliography

1. Wiss, Johanna et al. “The Influence of Identifiability and Singularity in Moral Decision Making.” Judgment and Decision Making 10.5 (2015): 492–502. Web. 

The primary purpose of this study is to investigate how the concepts of identifiability and singularity influence moral decision-making processes. The research aims to understand the psychological mechanisms that lead individuals to make different moral choices when dealing with identifiable victims versus anonymous ones, and singular victims versus groups.  

The article presents a series of experiments designed to test the effects of identifiability and singularity on moral decision-making. The authors find that people are more likely to make decisions favoring identifiable and singular victims. This phenomenon is explored through various scenarios and conditions, highlighting that emotional responses are stronger when victims are identifiable and singular, leading to more morally driven decisions in those contexts. The results suggest that moral choices are not solely based on rational calculations but are significantly influenced by emotional factors. The work is written for an academic audience, particularly scholars and students in psychology, behavioral economics, and philosophy. It is also relevant for professionals in fields related to ethical decision-making, like public policy, law, and healthcare. This study is relevant to the topic of how individual personalities influence morally ethical decision-making processes because it provides evidence on the impact of identifiability for the understanding of how different personalities might respond to moral dilemmas. The findings suggest that personal connections and the focus on single individuals can affect moral decisions. Additionally, the article includes comprehensive statistical analyses to support its findings. 

2. Carlson, John R., et al. “On The Relationship Between DSS Design Characteristics And Ethical Decision Making.” Journal of Managerial Issues, vol. 11, no. 2, 1999, pp. 180–97. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/40604264. Accessed 18 May 2024. 

The purpose of this study is to examine how the design characteristics of Decision Support Systems (DSS) influence ethical decision-making in managerial contexts. The authors aim to identify specific DSS features that can either promote or hinder ethical decisions made by managers. 

The article explores the interplay between DSS design and ethical decision-making. It discusses various design characteristics of DSS, such as data presentation formats, user interface design, and decision-making algorithms, and how these elements can impact the ethical choices of users. Through theoretical analysis and empirical investigation, the authors provide insights into how DSS can be designed to support ethical decision-making. The work is mainly written for an academic audience, including researchers and scholars in management, information systems, and business ethics. It is also relevant for practitioners involved in the design and implementation of DSS in organizational settings. This study is relevant to the topic of individual personalities influencing morally ethical decision-making processes because it gets into how technological tools, specifically DSS, can shape ethical behavior. The article stands out for its focus on the intersection of technology and ethics in decision-making. It offers a detailed analysis of DSS features and their ethical implications, combining theoretical frameworks with practical recommendations. 

3. Williams, Rowan. “Making Moral Decisions.” The Cambridge Companion to Christian Ethics. Ed. Robin Gill. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. 1–15. Print. Cambridge Companions to Religion. 

The purpose of this chapter is to explore the process of making moral decisions from a Christian ethical perspective. Rowan Williams aims to provide a nuanced understanding of how Christian principles and theological insights inform and guide ethical decision-making.  

In this chapter, Rowan Williams discusses the foundations of moral decision-making within the Christian tradition. He emphasizes the importance of scripture, tradition, reason, and experience in shaping ethical judgments. Williams argues that moral decisions are not merely about following rules but involve discerning the will of God through a reflective and prayerful process. He highlights the role of community and the church in supporting individuals as they navigate moral complexities. The work is intended for students, scholars, and practitioners of Christian ethics and theology. It is also suitable for a broader audience interested in the intersection of religion and morality. This chapter is highly relevant to the topic of how individual personalities influence morally ethical decision-making processes because Williams’ discussion provides a theological framework that considers personal reflection, community involvement, and divine guidance, all of which intersect with individual personality traits and their influence on moral decisions. It shows a perspective that integrates personal and communal dimensions of ethical decision-making, highlighting how personal beliefs and values shape moral choices. A unique feature of this chapter is its emphasis on the integrative approach to ethics, combining theological reflection with practical guidance.  

4. Gaudine, A., Thorne, L. Emotion and Ethical Decision-Making in Organizations. Journal of Business Ethics 31, 175–187 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010711413444 

The purpose of this article is to explore the role of emotions in ethical decision-making within organizational contexts. Gaudine and Thorne aim to understand how different emotional states influence the ethical choices and behaviors of individuals in professional settings. 

The article examines the intersection of emotion and ethics, proposing that emotions significantly impact ethical decision-making processes in organizations. Gaudine and Thorne present a theoretical framework that incorporates emotions into the traditional models of ethical decision-making. They discuss how positive and negative emotions can affect individuals’ perceptions, judgments, and actions when faced with ethical dilemmas. The authors also review empirical studies that support their framework and suggest practical implications for managing emotions in organizational ethics programs. The article is intended for scholars, researchers, and practitioners in business ethics, organizational behavior, and management. This article is highly relevant to the topic of how individual personalities influence morally ethical decision-making processes across various contexts. By focusing on emotions, Gaudine and Thorne highlight an essential aspect of personality that affects ethical behavior. Their work provides insights into how emotional states can shape moral judgments and decisions, which is crucial for understanding the broader influences of personality on ethics. A unique feature of this article is its integration of emotions into ethical decision-making models, which traditionally emphasize cognitive processes.  

5. Bartels, Daniel M. “Principled moral sentiment and the flexibility of moral judgment and decision making.” Cognition 108.2 (2008): 381-417. 

The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between moral principles and moral sentiments, and how this relationship influences the flexibility of moral judgment and decision-making. Bartels aims to understand the extent to which moral decisions are guided by stable principles versus being influenced by emotional responses and contextual factors.  

Bartels explores the interplay between principled moral reasoning and moral sentiments, such as empathy and emotional reactions. He examines whether individuals rely more on consistent moral principles or on flexible emotional responses when making moral judgments. The study involves a series of experiments that manipulate emotional contexts to observe their impact on moral decision-making. Bartels concludes that while people often espouse stable moral principles, their actual judgments can be significantly swayed by emotional and situational factors, demonstrating the flexibility of moral decision-making. The article is intended for cognitive scientists, psychologists, philosophers, and scholars in moral and ethical studies. This article is relevant to the topic of how individual personalities influence morally ethical decision-making processes by examining the roles of principled reasoning and emotional responses. Bartels’ research provides insight into the cognitive and affective dimensions of moral judgment, which highlights the variability in how individuals apply moral principles in different situations. A unique feature of this article is its experimental approach to disentangling the influences of principled reasoning and moral sentiments. Bartels’ use of varied emotional contexts to test moral decision-making offers a nuanced understanding of the flexibility and complexity of moral judgments.  

6. Bommer, Michael, et al. “A Behavioral Model of Ethical and Unethical Decision Making.” Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 6, no. 4, 1987, pp. 265–80. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/25071660. Accessed 18 May 2024. 

The purpose of this article is to develop and present a behavioral model that explains the processes involved in making ethical and unethical decisions in business contexts. The authors aim to identify the factors that influence ethical decision-making and to propose a comprehensive framework that integrates these factors into a coherent model.  

Bommer and his colleagues propose a model that outlines the various cognitive and behavioral steps individuals go through when confronted with ethical dilemmas in business settings. The model includes stages such as the recognition of an ethical issue, the judgment of the ethicality of potential actions, the intention to act ethically or unethically, and the actual behavior. The authors discuss factors that influence each stage, including individual characteristics (e.g., personal values, moral development), organizational factors (e.g., codes of conduct, organizational culture), and situational factors (e.g., the immediacy of consequences, the presence of peers). The article is written for scholars, researchers, and students in the fields of business ethics, organizational behavior, and management. This article is relevant to the topic of how individual personalities influence morally ethical decision-making processes because the behavioral model proposed by Bommer et al. highlights the interplay between individual traits and external factors in ethical decision-making. This provides a comprehensive framework that can be used to analyze and understand ethical behavior in diverse contexts. A unique feature of this article is its integration of multiple perspectives and factors into a single, cohesive model of ethical decision-making.  

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