Primary Sources:

John Kerry’s Facebook Page:

“John Kerry – Boston, MA – Government Official | Facebook.” Facebook. John Kerry, 13 Dec. 2007. Web. 01 Dec. 2012. <https://www.facebook.com/johnkerry>

John Kerry John Edwards 2004 Campaign Site:

“John Kerry John Edwards 2004 Campaign Site.” John Kerry John Edwards 2004 Campaign Site. Kerry-Edwards 2004, Inc., 3 Nov. 2004. Web. 30 Nov. 2012. <http://web.archive.org/web/20041104041706/http://www.johnkerry.com/fec/>.

George W. Bush White House Homepage:

“Welcome to the White House: President George W. Bush.” Welcome to the White House. U.S. Government, 16 Jan. 2009. Web. 30 Nov. 2012. <http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/index.html>.

Election Night 2012 Social Media: The Memes, Photos, Stats


Blue State Digital: Obama for America


SEO measures for the 2012 Elections




Secondary Sources:

Media Bias in the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election and the Effect of the Blogosphere:

Spagnolo, Justin. “Media Bias in the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election and the Effect of the Blogosphere.” Conservative Blog & Conservative News Source for Right of Center Activists. Red State, n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2012. <http://www.redstate.com/standardcandle/2009/10/19/media-bias-in-the-2008-us-presidential-election-and-the-effect-of-the-blogosphere/>.

Analyzing the Representativeness of Internet Political Participation.

Best, Samuel J., and Brian S. Krueger. “Analyzing the Representativeness of Internet Political Participation.” JSTOR. Springer, June 2005. Web. 30 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/4500191>.

 Summary Data for George W. Bush 2004 Re-Election Campaign

“Bush-Cheney 2004 Elections.” Summary Data for George W. Bush: Campaign Finance/Money. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2012. <https://www.opensecrets.org/pres04/summary.php?cid=N00008072>.

Maureen Dowd’s New York Times OpEd Piece on John Kerry’s Campaign 2004 Blog

 Dowd, Maureen. “Blah Blah Blog.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 13 Aug. 2003. Web. 30 Nov. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2003/08/13/opinion/blah-blah-blog.html?ref=presidentialelectionof2004>.

New York Times Topics: 2004 Election

“Presidential Election of 2004.” New York Times Topics: Presidential Election of 2004. The New York Times, 2004. Web. 30 Nov. 2012. <http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/reference/timestopics/subjects/p/presidential_election_of_2004/index.html>.

Social Media And Presidential Election: Impact Of YouTube, MySpace


Media Spectacle and the 2008 Presidential Election: Some Pre-election Reflections


2012 Presidential Election: Social Media and Internet Advertising Major Indicators


Inside the Obama Campaign’s Hard Drive





After going through everyone’s assingments in class, I decided to change my assignment from the “Make weather” audio to the “Create a Voicemail Recording,” which is an assignment to a record voice mail message for use samples, impressions, and/or music.

Instead of trying to (poorly) impersonate Barack Obama, I decided to instead create an automatic voice messaging system for his answering machine. This allowed me to think about what issues the president is facing that people would want to ask him about like the economy, the job numbers, and the ongoing wars and conflicts overseas. I also added the “swipe” at the G.O.P and Fox News, as they have been a notorious thorn in the president’s side during his terms.

The reason I switched my assignments is because I think the voicemail assignment offered more space for a historical argument. Mine being – what  questions has Obama left unanswered?

The voicemail format of the audio really helps so that – what about the economy, job growth, immigration and the Gaza conflict? I only added 5 for time purposes, but I could’ve added at least five more, and had interviewees record their questions under each number, like a recording.

Next, I could go back into Obama’s speeches, and see if he can answer these questions in another recording. His view on job growth, how he’s going to handle Afghanistan, new policies he’ll announce on immigration. It could also be a means to listen to the silences  as the numbers keep adding up “Press 12…Press 13…” with the more conflicts Obama faces in his term.

The thing about a voicemail is that it’s a message you leave because you want to be answered. Called back. Responded to.

What if Obama can’t respond back because he doesn’t have an answer? The silence of an ignored voicemail can say a lot.


I’m going to try to tackle the Imitate some weather audio assignment. In this task, by using only my voice and things around the house, I’m going to imitate some kind of weather.

Tin pans, my shutters, and me going SSSOOOOOSSSSSHHHHHHHHHHHH should make this project really challenging but fun! I have a Macbook and the Garage Band application that I’ve used for audio files before, so hopefully I can do this project without much headaches.


Group One Final Project Draft [entry-title]

Historical Question: How have presidential campaigns used the internet to connect with voters?

Our site is very simple, allowing for a user-friendly interface.

Home page at the top with 4 categories for 4 elections (2000, 2004, 2008 and 2012) and each member will have their own table to show our data.

It will be very much like the simple design below, which we borrowed from Website Storyboarding examples:

The website will most likely be a WordPress template, hosted by Blogs@Baruch. This is still being discussed amongst the group.


The data we will be mapping is how each presidential budget changed into order to accomendate the tools, pages and staff for each of the campaign’s web-reach.

Though we’re hitting a bit of a wall on how to find how the budgets were allocated in 2000 and 2004, there are many sources for 2012 including information by SEO on how much was spent, and shared for both Romney and Obama:


According to SEO, Romney spent $1.32 “per click” while Obama spent $1.15 “per click” during their 2012 election campaigns.

Comparing Paid Maternity Leave Around the World [entry-title]

In this graphic by ThinkProgress.org, the issue of paid maternity leave in the United States is called into question as it is compared to that of other nations.

Geniusly, the number of weeks of paid maternity leave are designed in a circle, from most to least, with corresponding colors of the rainbow, making it bright, colorful and easy to read.

Though the numbers may be staggering (if I were to have a baby, I’d really like to have one in Canada!) the way the data is presented is very appealing.

Average Life Expectancy of Countries in Africa [entry-title]

I really struggled to get any sort of map off the ground using Google Fusion Maps. It literally took me the entire weekend just to figure out how to use the right data and how to embed it into the blog and I still don’t think I’m doing this right!!!

I really would LOVE to be able to do this, and maybe if there was a way for my group to find data on Voting Ages in the United States we could use this program, but the fact of the matter is the Fusion Maps is really picky with its data – by that I mean, it really doesn’t work unless you have super accurate data that’s presented in a certain way.

The map shows the life expectancy for countries in Africa between 3 – 100. Red being the youngest deaths and blue being the oldest.


Secondary Sources for Group 1:



This document goes in to great detail how the Internet has become a factor during Clinton’s Presidency and how Bush Jr was the first president to establish a Twitter account and the significance of how social media and the Internet became an integral part of the election process from that point.

2.) Does the Messenger Matter? Candidate-Media Agenda Convergence and Its Effects on Voter

Issue Salience

By using data during the early stages of the 2006 Texas midterm election, Danny Hayes show how media coverage of candidates affects the willingness for voters to vote for them. The findings in Hayes pieces show the value for candidates of enlisting  new media to help pass along their message and to strengthen their influence as a political candiate.

3.) Campaign Politics and the Digital Divide: Constituency Characteristics, Strategic Considerations, and Candidate Internet Use in State Legislative Elections

In this piece, the authors discuss how the internet divides voters. The piece talks about how just like the elderly, those less well educated, and some minorities are less likely to use the Internet than other Americans, candidates for lower-level offices are less likely to use it than presidential and congressional candidates.



As Ted Underwood mentioned in the reading, some of the biggest obstacles around text mining is not only finding the data needed, but finding the skills to collect the correct data.

A reason being that our topic revolves around social media, which can be traced back not just from MySpace, but to early social networking services such as email, chat services and other early internet social structures.  Also, as modern history goes, text mining can be easier as we will have more resources as sites, blogs and social applications become more accessible and popular.

After our group uncovers more secondary documents, as we feed them into a Wordle-like application we can see common themes such as undecided, voting, and different kind of feelings that stem from being a first-time voter. These similarities can help us focus on what aspect of the sources we should focus our attention towards, and can help us specify our final historical question.

In the case of secondary sources, my group may find itself in the same predicament the Underwood found himself in his own research.

“A lot of excitement about digital humanities is premised on the notion that we already have large collections of digitized sources waiting to be used. But it’s not true, because page images are not the same thing as clean, machine-readable text.” – Underwood

However, Many of our sources with social media can be a primary source – with interviews, blogs to mine through, and various social networks to comb through by means of twitter hashtags, trending topics, and blogging categories.


Group 1
Caroline, Anton, Eli, Cameron, Leanardo

A name for your group


2-3 historical questions you are considering answering in your project

1.) How does social media (twitter, Facebook, tumblr, reddit, etc) affect young/first time  voters?
2.) How has social media and the internet affected the 2012 Presidential Election? Does social media influence first time voters to vote?

A brief description of the expected scope of your project:

We hope to focus on 2012, but using other elections for comparison purposes, on how young voters (high school seniors/college freshman) are affected by these sites.   We feel that we can talk about all the memes, gifs, and twitter accounts that have popped up during the election – including that Big Bird 2012 campaign that started during/after the first presidential debate.

A list of challenges and potential problems that you are having now, or anticipate will arise as you work on the project

Currently we find a challenge to be  focusing our generally broad ideas into one big topic – the internet is a huge place and memes fall in-and-out of popularity regularly, and it’s also difficult to gauge how something as abstract as the internet is affecting something as concrete as voting for a presidential candidate.

Illustrating the 1968 Women's Movement [entry-title]

Demonstrators from the National Women’s Liberation Movement picket the 1968 Miss America Pageant. (Copyright Bettmann/Corbis / AP Images)

  • After checking out the database’s citation, the says that the Photographer is Anonymous. I’m assuming that means that the photographer is uncredited as they bought the picture from an amateur photographer.
  • Saturday, September 07, 1968
  • Atlantic City
  • The Miss America pageant became a target of protests, as feminist and civil rights activist fought against what they saw as a show that was degrading to women. In 1968, 400 women from the New York Radical Women protested the event on the Atlantic City boardwalk by crowning a live sheep Miss America. They also symbolically trashed a number of feminine products such as fake eyelashes, make up and bras.
  • The photograph is a primary source because the AP photos, though anonymous, are taken by their own photographers and kept in their archives. It’s been digitized for the website, but because it’s the Associated Press, it’s a reliable news wire and it is trusted to have a copy in it’s own physical archives.
  • The Associated Press has been around since the mid-1800s, and is the most widely (if not only) news-wire used in most journalistic broadcasts and publications. Its style book is taught at Baruch College’s Copy Editing course, and all articles in the department as well as campus publications such as Dollars and Sense and The Ticker are written in AP Style. AP Image, as an offshoot of the Associated Press, has gained its credibility through its age, it’s influence and it’s newsworthiness.
  • I would ask to see the physical copy of the photograph, and I would like to see if I could learn more about who was responsible for taking the photo and why they were kept anonymous. As mentioned in an earlier reading, curating history is not just looking into what’s been recorded, but what’s been left out of history.

In the context of the 1968 election, I would do background information on the history of this particular women’s organization, the National Women’s Liberation Movement. With the creation of the National Organization for Women (NOW) I would like to see if the two organizations ever clashed or if they worked together.

Regarding the protests, I would go back and see how it was covered in the news – were the demonstrator villainized or supported by the media? How did the presidential candidates handle the movement – did they lump it together with the civil rights and youth movements at the time, or was it its own separate issue?

Also, after the candidates made their stance, was there any policies passed to reflect their views, or was the issue pushed aside until the next administration? Did the conflict cause controversy? Were the candidates comfortable or uncomfortable talking about the women’s liberation movement?

For the photograph, I would truly like to know why the photographer is Anonymous. Being such a highly credible publication, the Associated Press is not one to just find a photo, shrug its shoulders and say, “Guess we’ll just use this one.” The people in charge at the time knew the photographer and chose not to credit them (or the photographer did not want to receive credit) – why was this? Was the conflict between women’s liberation and the mainstream media too tense at the time?

The silence speaks volumes in this case, and while the conflict of the women’s liberation movement most likely had less supporters than fans, I would like to get a better understanding of the ripple effects of protests like the one illustrated at the Atlantic City boardwalk.



Elected in 1968, Richard Nixon campaigned on the coat-tails of equal right, however his lack of attention toward’s women’s issues caused him plenty of backlash.  During the election, women’s liberation was a hot topic, as the new wave of feminism flooded American politics, clashing with the culture of a “typical” female (think Doris Day and Mrs. Cleaver.)

Issues such as legalized abortions (remember, the Roe v. Wade decision wasn’t made until 1973,) the value of women’s votes, and the equality for women (especially married women) in the workplace were all highly charged issues, as women climbed the social, class and status ladder and clashed against the men who were already sitting on top.

Working women:

Currently, women make $0.77 to every man’s dollar, though this gap in wages is not something that hasn’t be fought before. In a 1962 issues of the Wall Street Journal (just six year before the election) women were already fighting for equal pay. In an article titled Senate Unit Approves ‘Equal Pay for Women’ Bill; Changes Possible: Tower to Seek to Put Limit on Labor Agency’s Role, Allow for Added Cost of Women Employes, talks of putting a limit on the Labor Agency’s role in the issue to allow for employers to afford the “added cost of women employees.” However, as the printed of this article the bill was not yet passed, women’s lobbying groups rallied for “equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill.” The article also spoke of ridiculous amendments that would be added to such a simply bill (because it’s so hard to pay everyone the same wage when you’re cheap) such as not being able to look into earlier complaints by female worker’s on unjust actions, and the bill would only cover based on “seniority or merit increase systems.” The bill looked to favor the excuses by avoiding the harsh truth that employers just do not want to pay women equally.

Abortion Laws:

In an article dated December 1968 (right after the 1968 election) by Keith Monore ,titled How California’s Abortion Law Isn’t Working: California’s abortion law The abortion reformers look to the courts for change, spoke of how California was reforming its Abortion Law. It allowed for abortions to be approved and undergone only if the mother was mentally ill. In effect, many women were suddenly mentally ill to have their cases approved, and as Monore reported, if their cases weren’t approved women would find other means to abort their pregnancies, such as seeking unsafe “alternative abortions.” While Pro-choice and Pro-lifers battle it now during this election, in 1968 women were still having the “legitimacy” of their rapes questioned, as the article quoted stories of a raped girl who became pregnant who died after she jumped off her parents’ roof to abort the child, another was of a child who despised his “parents” who was conceived after his mother (a married women) was raped though abortion was approved by medical authorities it was the declined by the district attorney.

Sexual Discrimination:

In 1966, the National Organization for Women (NOW) was formed, and is currently the largest feminist organization in the United States. Since it’s formation, NOW focuses on issues pertaining to women such as abortion rights and reproductive issues, violence against women, constitutional equality, promoting diversity and ending racism, lesbian rights, and economic justice. Using the database “Women and Social Movements,” I was able to find an article titled “How and Why Was Feminist Legal Strategy Transformed, 1960-1973.” In Document 15 was an article from November 1967 which dealt with Constitutional Protection Against Sex Discrimination, written by Mary Eastwood. The core of Eastwood’s memorandum can be summed up by one quote:

“The power of American law, and the protection guaranteed by the U.S.Constitution to the civil rights of all individuals, must be effectively applied and enforced to isolate and remove patterns of sex discrimination, to ensure equality of opportunity in employment and education, and equality of civil and political rights and responsibilities on behalf of women, as well as for Negroes and other deprived groups.”

Just like the issues before this, women have been fighting against sexual discrimination on a political for decades. Though progress has been made, there is still much to be done, and this current election may choose whether or not the war on women truly blooms to fruition.

Connecting to the #DS106 Experience [entry-title]

When first assigned, the DS106 site looked like one huge monster filled with pictures, video and text. There were hyperlinks to every which-way, pictures moving up and down and with it all being against a black background, DS106 appeared to have a Frankenstein’s monster-like hold on the internet. After exploring some links, I realized that’s exactly what it was hoping to achieve.

DS106 is a mass online course that deals with Digital Storytelling (I felt incredibly proud when I realized that’s it’s what the DS stood for) by use of text, image, sound and video. It deals heavily with blogging, with students completing assignments and posting them up on their blog.

On the official DS106, under the About section the instructors pride that “the only requirements are a real computer, a hardy internet connection, preferably a domain of your own and some commodity web hosting, and all the creativity you can muster.”

The class works to create a narrative that can frame the student’s internet identity – and yes, it’s extremely progressive with a side of “Matrix” science-fiction.  Still curious about the inner workings of the course, I reached-out instructors Jim Groom, Alan Levine, and Michael B. Smith, in true DS106 style, via twitter. To which I learned that curating the internet, so to speak, is no simple task.

Michael Smith was the first to respond, and he discussed how DS160 deals with fair use and how the program avoids copywrite issues.

Smith tweeted me about the copyright issues around not just the DS106 course, but the internet as a whole.

Linking to a post in his blog, he shared a post by Groom regarding what really counts as “fair use.”  The post titled “Is There No Sanctuary?” is told entirely with .gifs, youtube clips and a few sentences of narration for flow. It tells the story of how Groom’s Youtube account was shut-down after various copyright complaints after using clips of copyrighted videos for educational purposes.

In Groom’s blog about the situation he writes,

I feel like a criminal for quoting works I love. I feel like a criminal for wanting to further imagine through the offspring of our moment. Worst of all, I have to feel like a criminal when I am having fun. It’s becoming a much more serious crime, and I’m scared about that prospect. Not so much that they’ll sue me, but more that they have already occupied my mind trying to convince me that sharing online is evil. To convince me that a video sharing site owned by an advertising company that promises to “do no evil” has become the de facto mediary between millions of people and what seems a basic human right to re-use, remix, and re-imagine the media we inhabit.

 – Jim Grooms, Fear of a YouTube Planet

The idea of reusing,  remix, and re-imaging the internet is a central aspect of the DS160 course. Smith tweeted that a lot of images are also taken from public domain sites such as archive.org but “mashing bits of popular media like digital punk flyers.”

Smith then linked me to a Youtube video by Groom, titled No Digital Facelifts: Thinking the Unthinkable About Open Educational Experiences.

In his lecture, Groom notes the importance of Narration, Curation and Sharing when dealing with any type of digital history and web content.

Which leads me to my conversation with Groom himself. Our conversation was more about the fundamental philosophy of what DS106 is and the inspiration behind such a deeply embedded course for the web.

Jim Groom is the director of the Division of Teaching and Learning Technologies and adjunct professor at the University of Mary Washington and is the brainpower behind DS106.

Groom also directed me to Gardner Campbell’s article titled A Personal Cyberinfrastructur, which focused on how the internet should be used in an educational setting.

In short, students would build a personal cyberinfrastructure, one they would continue to modify and extend throughout their college career — and beyond.

In building that personal cyberinfrastructure, students not only would acquire crucial technical skills for their digital lives but also would engage in work that provides richly teachable moments ranging from multimodal writing to information science, knowledge management, bibliographic instruction, and social networking. Fascinating and important innovations would emerge as students are able to shape their own cognition, learning, expression, and reflection in a digital age, in a digital medium. Students would frame, curate, share, and direct their own “engagement streams” throughout the learning environment.

– Gardner Campbell,  A Personal Cyberinfrastructur

Much like our own class, the DS106 is a larger version of our own digital curation. With hundreds of students creating content for the web, by the web, with the web. Which left me wonder just how the community is to interact on such a grandiose scale. This is where Alan Levine came in, who explained me to how MOC classes like DS106 work as a community.

So…what now? As a new semester begins to rev its engine, the DS106 community is already finishing up their first few assignments. In a call-out using the #DS106 hash-tag on twitter, I asked students how they felt about the course. Some appeared excited, others confused, but one user tweeted back to me personally.

There’s a famous quote by Marshall McLuhan, a Canadian philosopher of communication theory, that claims that “the medium is the message.” As the lines between offline and online become more blurred, the tools of the web are constantly changing, and with that so is the message. Courses like DS106 are providing podiums for students to share their messages with the world, to be heard through a new medium.  Now what remains is the question of just how many people are willing to listen, and will obstacles such as copyright laws limit creativity.


In the document, I edited the terms Diversity and Manipulability. Using the text, I reread the reading to find where Cohen and Rosenzweig mentioned the terms. After reading, I wrote my own definition in the space, using the reading as a guideline.

For Manipulability, however, I decided to take it a step further by embedding the photo Cohen and Rosenzweig used in the reading as an example. By doing so, I feel like it brought the document to another level and the example could better illustrate my definition.

It was difficult to use the HMTL tool, however, as I had to find the image’s url by opening it up in another window on my browser and figuring out how to edit the caption, center the image where I wanted it in the document (it had originally be thrown to the top) and make sure it came up when I was done editing.