Instigators: Bibliography

Primary sources:

Commission on Presidential Debates (1960,1992,2012): http://www.debates.org/

2012 Debate Transcripts:

1      October-3-2012-debate-transcript

2      October-11-2012-the-biden-romney-vice-presidential-debate

3      October-1-2012-the-second-obama-romney-presidential-debate

4      Last Presidential-debate-full-transcript

Research on Presidential debates:


Youtube Clips and Audio


  1. First Debate – Nixon v. Kennedy (video) : debate link
  2.   Second Debate – Nixon v. Kennedy (video): [Part one link; Part two linkPart three link; Part four link.
  3.   Third Debate – Nixon v. Kennedy (video): [ Part one link; Part two link;Part three link; Part four link.
  4.   Fourth Debate – Nixon v. Kennedy (audio) : [ Part one link;Part two link; Part three link ;Part four link.

Secondary Sources:

Media Myth Surrounding the 1960 Kennedy-Nixon Presidential Debates & the Boston Globe : Angelia Levy /2010/05/09/ media myth surrounding the 1960 Presidential debates


Can drama be read monotonously and still convey the same meaning? That is the historical argument that I chose to illustrate in my sound clip. The excerpt is of an emotional scene between the main character and her father as she breaks through the grasps of customs and traditions to find her own way in America. I used my laptop and Audacity software to create the sound clip, and Soundcloud to upload it to the blog.

Drama has been played out in theaters since ancient times. The ancient Greeks broke drama into two main genres: comedy and tragedy. Thalia was the muse of comedy and represented by the laughing mask, and Melpomene was the muse of tragedy and represented by the weeping mask. The mask helped the audience know the emotions of the characters at various points in the drama. As technology advanced and before the invention of the television, people were able to enjoy drama from the comfort of their home, listening to movies, shows, news, etc. on radios. To get the same effect as in live theater, it was important for the characters to use various tone and inflections to portray their emotions and allow the audience to imagine the scene playing out, along with the help of strategic sound effects.

]The assignment I chose called for Over-Dramatic Reading with a twist: to choose any written material to read in a way that alters the message of the original text. I went the opposite way of over dramatic reading and read it monotonously with the objective of seeing if there would be a same effect. Instead of reading a sad scene in a happy or mad way, or reading a romantic scene in a sarcastic tone, I attempted to take all inflection and pitch from the voice to test if toneless drama is possible and still allows the audience to get the same meaning as if the audio aid was still there. The irony is that even silence speaks volumes.


Instigator Group members: Robert Sorenson, Jordan Smith, Felipe Francois

Archiving History Digitally Historical question:  What effect did the debates have on, specifically, the 1960, 1992, and 2012 presidential election outcomes?

Workload: Jordan will be covering the 1960 debates/election, Robert will be researching the 1992 debates/election, and Felipe will be working on this year’s debates/elections. We will be focusing on undecided voters, as they are the most influenced by debates. Some of the outlets we are considering for our debate feedback are CNN, Fox, the New York Times qand other online sources.

Some obvious challenges we anticipate are with respect to collecting data. Like getting access to recordings, transcripts and poll data of the debates. Another problem is how do we put the information together so that it makes sense and reflect the actual debate. Lastly keeping our own biases at bay so that we represent the facts as they appear.

Possible sources for the debates are:

Commission on Presidential Debates.- http://www.debates.org/

2012 Election Centralhttp://www.2012presidentialelectionnews.com/2012-debate-schedule/2012-presidential-debate-schedule/

FactCheck.org. – http://factcheck.org/2012/11/obamas-numbers-updated/

Pew Research Centerhttp://pewresearch.org/

270 To Win270toWin,

Gallupgallup polls,

We plan to use wordle, Fusion Table and other major social networking sites, such as Twitter, tumblr to give a gage of this presidential election. For the other earlier years we’ll use exit polls of those elections since we didn’t have those technology in the years we choose. We will be doing more research on how we will handle the issue of data mining.

CNN.com [entry-title]


This data represents the kind of spending that is involved in choosing our president. The importance of so called swing states in clenching the nomination can be clearly identified by just looking at this map and seeing the kind of spending the candidates are dishing out in TV ads, particularly in the state of Ohio where both candidates are spending the most money by very long stretch of the margin with respect to the other states. Hence the reason they coined the term “battleground state”.


View &

This map shows the presidential candidates and their running mates schedules for today 10/22/2012. The map tool could be a very optimal tool in our group project, particularly because it helps to give people a visual take on a topic that might otherwise be a bit boring without some kind of visual aid. Since our topic is based on how the debates effects the winner of the presidential election, having a map that shows the changes in different states and county’s might be a good aid for our project.

Overall I find Google’s my map tool very useful for other projects that I might want to incorporate it into. I recall playing with Google my map about two or three years ago but now that I understand how you can imbed it in your own writings and blog post it makes much more sense to me.


Our group can use text mining to answer the historical question that the group has proposed about if and how the outcome of presidential debates determined who won the election. Text mining would allow us to see if there were key words or phrases used by candidates during the debates that proved to have a positive or negative effect on voters, and as result, attracted voters or deterred them away. Another way text mining will be beneficial in our project is to determine if other aspects apart from analytics played a role in deciding the outcome of elections based on a candidate’s performance during the debates. During debates, candidates present various types of data to present their case to voters: statistical data, such as their previous track record while serving in their current governmental post; and conditional data, such as what they expect to accomplish if they are chosen as president. Because debating not only deals with factual data presented by the candidates but also the manner in which the candidates convey the data, such as their behavioral disposition, body language, tone of voice, eye contact, etc., data mining will help capture the effects of these different factors and what role they played in steering the outcome of the election. However, we keep in mind that our analysis is on the premise that the election process is very complex and trying to keep all variables stable poses multifaceted challenges.


History 3460: Digital History

Group Name: Instigator

Group members: Robert Sorenson, Jordan Smith, Felipe Francois

Archiving History Digitally


There are a few questions that our group, Instigators, seeks to find answers to on the current presidential election. How much influence do the debates between candidates affect and change the outcome of the polls coming closer to the election?  How much influence do the debates affect who actually wins the elections? Have any previous elections been decided solely on debate performance?

Although we have considered the actual debates as a guide for our research questions we don’t actually know the scope to which we should go about answering our questions. Some of the outlets we are considering for our debate feedback are CNN (they display a meter for a cohort of undecided voters during the live debates to depict their feelings toward what each candidate is saying), Gallop, Fox, and the New York Times as well as other online sources.

Some obvious challenges we anticipate are with respect to collecting data. Such as getting access to recordings, transcripts and poll data of the debates. Choosing a single method of collaboration could also be a tough decision because it will be a basis for understanding what we each gather. Another problem is how to put the information together so it makes sense and reflects the actual debate. Lastly, keeping our own biases at bay so that we represent the facts as they appear.


  • United States Military
  • April 1968
  • Khe Sanh Vietnam
  • To show the resupplying mission for the US troops.
  • This document is a primary source because it’s an actual picture that was taken at the site giving a first hand account of the battle field.
  • I believe this United States Military is a reliable source, moreover, this picture speaks for it self because it is an actual photo.
  1. The picture begs the question what was the general mood of the troops in in Vietnam in April of 1968 in the front lines of the battle.
  2. Was the picture taken to shred light on the hardship and lack of supplies for the troops?
  3. Maybe it was meant to gain support for pulling troops from Vietnam.



Culturally the Vietnam War was a major issue for the candidates running during the 1968 presidential elections, particularly because of the war and the civil unrest of African American struggle to be treated fairly. Another issue was the racial issues facing African Americans serving in the military.  The Vietnam war marked the first American war to be integrated and the first time that African American were encouraged to join the service. It is said that although African Americans was allowed to serve in the military “they have sometimes faced almost as bitter a hostility from their fellow Americans as from the enemy.” War is never a good thing, however, one might ask if it wasn’t for the war, which helped to show up the racial problems and make it necessary to address them. Because it was in 1968 with increasing problems and frustration with lack of racial progress that led to race riots on military bases and ships that the services’ response in creating interracial councils and racial sensitivity training in the military. Readings such as the Military war achieves might be a good place to get some answers.


According to the Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History. “African Americans often did supply a disproportionate number of combat troops, a high percentage of whom had voluntarily enlisted. Although they made up less than 10 percent of American men in arms and about 13 percent of the U.S. population between 1961 and 1966, they accounted for almost 20 percent of all combat-related deaths in Vietnam during that period. In 1965 alone African Americans represented almost one-fourth of the Army’s killed in action. In 1968 African Americans, who made up roughly 12 percent of Army and Marine total strengths, frequently contributed half the men in front-line combat units, especially in rifle squads and fire teams.” In the 1968 Election Richard Nixon campaigned as an Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) supporter and seek to align southern voters with his doctrine. However, Wallace a segregationist gained more of the southern support and eventually voters from Nixon.  Another question I would ask is what if Wallace had win the elections of 1968 what would life be like today?



United States Ch-53 Sea Stallion helicopter lands for resupply at Khe Sanh April 1968 during the war in Vietnam


This image, taken from the Art Museum Image Gallery database, was captured in April 1968 during the war in Vietnam. It wasn’t clear who actually took the picture. However, this picture symbolizes an issue that changes American wars politically during future time of war in the United States after 1968. Particularly it was pictures during the Vietnam War that caused the bitter unrest in the United States during the election of 1968. Following the Vietnam War there was less press coverage sanctioned by Cs  ongress and the executive office of other wars to avoid the public for seeing images that might cause civil unrest and turn public opinion against the government.


The conflict of culture has always been a part of the United States presidential elections. The article below taken from New York Times which was created during the election period shear some light on one of the issues during the 1968 presidential election especially showing the problem with the great disparagement between voters with respect to gender gap, particularly with women and those who were less educated. The second Source was highlights polling information that

Source New York Times

Source Women and Social Movements: Factors that influence Voter Turnouts



I found this article in the Financial Times Historical Archive. This article was written by Joe Rogaly on October 4, 1968 and featured in the Financial Times. The conflict facing Americans during this time in 1968 centered around the Vietnam War that was taking place and the newly announced vice-presidential candidate knew that was on people’s minds. George Wallace chose Curtis LeMay to be his running mate, a man known for his hostile remarks on the Vietnam War and his stance on using nuclear force on Vietnam. Many saw this political choice as a threat to Wallace’s campaign because LeMay might frighten away voters with his talk of bombing. However, Lemay’s views on another social issue that was prevalent in the 1960s, the fight for civil rights and racial issues, and on continuing the segregation of blacks and whites appealed to those who favored keeping blacks at arm’s length.


Source  Rogaly, Joe. “Counting on the Charms of Another Military Hero.” Financial Times [London, England] 4 Oct. 1968: 3. Financial Times. Web. 28 Sep. 2012.


One of the things that caught my attention on the ds106 site was the site’s title “Digital Storytelling it immediately bought to my attention the similarities to our class name. My first link was a story The Importance Of Words. The story began with a question of the importance of words in our lives. Then the writer when into the story

The story that I picked was about the importance of a language and the role that words play in our life. This story talked about people who did not have any language. As Susan was very surprised seeing a 27 year old man without having any language, since he was born deaf and he did not know that there is something such as words. And when he learn sign language from Susan, he became so emotional that he cried because the meaning of life changed for him as he realized that everything as its own name and definition.  As he said that his life without language was a dark life but now he is in a bright life.

As for this and other intellectual property ds106 seem to have a of respectful and an open policy like our digital history class. As for fair use they invite people to use and share the information just like wikipedia. I love one of their “subtle rules of NO APOLOGIES for not being able to participate when other parts of life intrude.” But particularly it was the way in which they choose to layout the creative commons in a language that was very simple and inviting to ready. I believe that it was my first time actually finishing the legal language of any document online. Impart too because they especially didn’t make it very long as to discourage the masses from reading it.

Finally, the theme of giving back, contributing and meeting new people gave me new motivation to take part in an online communities like ds106 and that made me see the importance of the site like these.