The Dawes Act (1887) was passed to hasten the Americanization of Indians. Under the provision of the act:
- Native American tribes were officially abolished.
- Each male American Indian was allotted 160 acres of reservation land as his own private property. Private property was expected to replace tribal land ownership, as each Native American became a farmer.
- Those who adopted this way of life were given United States citizenship and the right to vote. In the 1924, all Native American were made citizens.