43 thoughts on “The Conquest”

  1. Notes taken from the video:
    -Knew little about Latin America until Columbus and the era of Colonialism/Imperialism
    -Foreign invaders treated their conquest as if they were discovering new land. Tried to erase records of previous Latin American civilizations.
    -In order to justify their violence, European invaders pretended like the ingenious people didn’t exist in the first place. Ex: Columbus
    -Famous civilizations of Latin America: Aztecs, Incas, Mayas
    -Why do we call this part of the world “Latin America?” Recent term traces 19th century. Theories about Native Americans, decided that their ancestors must be from southern europe (Italy, France, or Spain). Extremely dubious “evidence” and by saying that, they wanted the native americans as their allies.
    -20,000 years ago, human hunter gathers crossed the land bridge from Asia to the Americas through Alaska. Gradually, it spread throughout the Americas.
    -Constantinople was the most crucial city in the spice trade as everything went through that city. In 1470, Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks and thus cut off European access to Asia.
    -In the 15th Century, Columbus proposed to sail west to try to get access to India without going through the Turks or Persians.
    -The King of Portugal accepted his request.
    -Quotation from Columbus’s diary after he landed on the Bahamas “They ought to make good and skilled servants. For they repeat very quickly whatever we say to them. I think they can easily be made Christians for they seem to have no religion. If it pleases our lord, I would take 6 of them to your highness when I depart in order that they may learn our language.”

    After I watched the video, I finally understood why Latin America is called Latin America because the Spanish and Portuguese speaking world don’t really have a huge connection to the Roman world. I did not know that it was due to political gains and just some ways the French can increase their number of allies. It must’ve been so widely used for this inaccurate term to still be relevant in the 21th century. Although with all due respect Professor, I don’t think the Ottomans “rebelled” against the Byzantines as during the reign of Mehmed II, his realm encompassed most of the Balkans and Anatolia. The Byzantine Empire was reduced to a city state and the Turk just invaded. I also think that because the Turks followed Islam, most European kingdoms were against the ideas of trading with what they consider infidels. Also another detail that surprised me was how interconnected Europe was considering all the constant wars on the continent. I also felt really uncomfortable when Columbus bluntly stated his intentions for the innocent indigenous people on the Island and how his own personal goals are more important to him than an entire group of people.

    1. Alvin,

      I also found the reason as to why Latin America was called Latin America interesting and new to me. It’s profoundly interesting that the politics of another country can contribute so much to the identity of a place so culturally unique from Europe. In addition to this, I found your comment about the Byzantine Empire enlightening. It is impressive that Europe continued to semi-function while under all of this political turmoil, not even considering it’s impact on trade. With the fall of such an empire and a vital part of trade gone, I can infer that Europe struggled a lot and there was a definite demand for resources and labor. A demand that could have lead to the circumstances of Columbus’ interaction with the native Americans.

    2. The comment with the notes and this comment “After I watched the video, I finally understood why Latin America is called Latin America because the Spanish and Portuguese speaking world don’t really have a huge connection to the Roman world. I did not know that it was due to political gains and just some ways the French can increase their number of allies. It must’ve been so widely used for this inaccurate term to still be relevant in the 21th century. Although with all due respect Professor, I don’t think the Ottomans “rebelled” against the Byzantines as during the reign of Mehmed II, his realm encompassed most of the Balkans and Anatolia. The Byzantine Empire was reduced to a city state and the Turk just invaded. I also think that because the Turks followed Islam, most European kingdoms were against the ideas of trading with what they consider infidels. Also another detail that surprised me was how interconnected Europe was considering all the constant wars on the continent. I also felt really uncomfortable when Columbus bluntly stated his intentions for the innocent indigenous people on the Island and how his own personal goals are more important to him than an entire group of people.” is mine
      -Alvin Liu

  2. The Conquest notes 9/12/21

    -Little knowledge of Latin America up until 19th century
    -1st steps of colonization: obliterate any signs of civilization before them, erasing indeginous culture and history. That is why we know so little about them.
    -In order to justify violence towards indigenous cultures, colonizers pretend that nothing existed. Ex. Columbus.
    -Historian:Job is to revive and retrieve obliterated cultures.
    -Textual evidence: most important and valuable
    -Why do we call this part of the world Latin America? It comes from the early 19th century, when French anthropologists came up with theories regarding indigenous people of the Americas. They decided that their ancestors must be from southern Europe based on very shaky and unfounded assumptions
    -Back then they divided Europe into 3: Anglo Saxons, Slavs and Latins
    -Wanted to present the native americans as their allies in the political scene in Europe
    -Latin America region populated for at least 20,000 years
    -Back then 20,000 years ago, there was a landbridge connecting what we know as Alaska and Russia, that’s how the first hunter gatherers came to Americas. The loss of the land bridge due to changing water levels is what attributed to the Europeans lack of knowledge regarding Latin America until the 15th century.

    -Columbus: Italian, from Genoa. Avid sailor, loved geography and astronomy. Married Portuguese woman. Discovered the Americas while trying to find a route to India.
    -Spice trade: Lucrative business back in Columbus’ time. There was a solid system created back then with many distribution points and roads, making trade easier. Constantinople was an important city because everything went through this city, Asia, Europe and back.
    -Constantinople fell in 1470 to the Ottomans who drove the Romans out. Lead to a sudden change in dynamics of trade. Cut off Europe’s commercial access to China

    Comment:

    It is interesting to learn about the circumstances that led to Christopher Columbus becoming this central character in history. Before this lecture I had no idea that the fall of Constantinople was one of the things that led to Columbus setting off on his expedition to try to find India again. I can see why he was a very controversial character today because from the very first time he saw the Native Americans he had thoughts of enslaving them and turning them Christian. So the ideas that were discussed early in the video had truth to them. Columbus assumed that they had no culture/religion before he came so he wanted to try to make history see him as the person who brought in culture to these lands and in doing so, eradicating the cultures before him. Very interesting stuff.

    1. I agree with you Randy, Columbus seemed to have really twisted the truth so he can enslave the native populations. I guess that was a colonial mindset, they were never interested in understanding or discerning the facts from their perceptions. They even wanted to wipe out the culture of the region too on top of enslaving them which is sickening and revolting. In addition, I had no idea that the fall of Constantinople was the reason why Columbus wanted to find India again. I must’ve forgot about it considering that these two events happened pretty close to each other.

      1. The comment “I agree with you Randy, Columbus seemed to have really twisted the truth so he can enslave the native populations. I guess that was a colonial mindset, they were never interested in understanding or discerning the facts from their perceptions. They even wanted to wipe out the culture of the region too on top of enslaving them which is sickening and revolting. In addition, I had no idea that the fall of Constantinople was the reason why Columbus wanted to find India again. I must’ve forgot about it considering that these two events happened pretty close to each other.” is mine
        -Alvin Liu

    2. Randy,

      What’s shocking to me is that Columbus has a hero mentality where he believes he can save Native Americans with Christianity, putting them into “good use” by enslaving them, and claiming and discovering land that wasn’t his to begin with. I feel like someone who has that mentality would definitely believe what he’s doing is right by making history and “eradicating the cultures before him”.

      – Jennifer Lee

      1. Jennifer,
        I agree with you. In his journal he was talking about helping these people by enslaving them for his own country and stating that the land he discovered was his. He makes himself seem like he is doing a great cause and helping them guide to a new path but instead he is only thinking of ways to harm them. When we were little we heard about Columbus adventure and how it was a celebration but were never told as to what hideous things he would do. I don’t agree that we should celebrate a day in which he discovers Americas only to cause harm to the native people. This journal just showed us what was going on in his mind and he believed himself to be a hero.
        -Parneet Kaur

  3. Pre Columbus era
    Obliterate all signs of a civilization before them
    They tried to erase the indigenous history
    Why do we call this world Latin America
    Traced back to the 19th century from French anthropologists.
    The anthropologist came up with theories about the indigenous people
    Europe divided into 3 categories
    Anglo Saxon
    Slavs – the Europeans and Russians and etc
    Latin Southern Europe and Mediterranean area
    The earliest sign of settlement in the area goes back to about 25,000 years ago
    America used to be connected to northern Asia, they only needed to cross a land bridge to go across countries.
    They gradually spread throughout the continent over thousands of years.
    When Europeans came over there were already about 15 million settled there.
    Much more people there then in Paris and London
    Christopher Columbus is an Italian from Genoa who loved sailing. Knew geography and astronomy. Married a Portuguese woman and that’s how he ended up in Portugal.
    1470 Constantinople fell to the Muslims/ Ottomans
    They wanted to travel westward toward Indira because their path through Asia was blocked off

    Comments:
    I personally did not think that Latin America went all the way back to when Pangea. Also the fact that they tried to get rid of so much history. Is it because they wanted to be known to have discovered a land completely without people to sound better to his people? It was also interesting to learn so much more about Christopher Columbus on top of what I already learned from elementary and middle school.

  4. The Conquest notes:

    -knew very little about the pre-Columbus era in Latin America until the 19th century
    -Knew very little about the history of the Americas before Christopher Columbus arrived and the conquest occurred
    -A patter that is followed by almost every nation in the history of colonialism is that the colonizer nation always tries to destroy all signs of previous history and civilization that occurred in the colony before the arrival of the colonizers
    -The colonizer nation would act like they were conquering empty lands with no previous history or people and would describe themselves as discovers who brought life to the land, completely disregarding all indigenous history that occurred
    -The reason we know so little about indigenous history and culture is that the colonizers would destroy and erase everything related to the indigenous people
    -Periphery of the European empires include Africa, Asia, and the Americas
    -To justify all the violence the colonizers committed, they would pretend that nothing existed before they arrived.
    -An Important task for any historian is trying to revive and retrieve these obliterated cultures and to look for architectural and textual evidence because those are usually the most important when reconstructing a civilization from the ashes of history
    -This method has been used since the 19th century and that’s how we know about the Aztecs, Mayans, and Incans
    -The existence and significance of this civilization have been disregarded and forgotten
    -The reason why Latin America is named the way it is, is because French anthropologists created theories about the indigenous people in the Americas saying that their ancestors originated from southern Europe to present the natives as their allies and fight over politics in Europe
    -the Latin American region of the world has been populated for at least twenty thousand years and the earliest signs of settlements in Latin America can be traced back 25,000 years
    -The natives were once hunters and gather who migrated from another Asia and crossed the frozen land bridge which connected Asia to the Americas
    -20,000 years ago there was land that was connected modern-day Russia to Alaska, but now these two places are separated by the sea
    -The people who crossed this land bridge gradually spread through the American continent making their way through the north, central, and South America as well as populating all areas of the Americas
    -By the time the Europeans arrived in the Americas around 150 million inhabitants were living in the two continent’s and there were cities in pre-Columbus America that were larger and more populated could compare to other European cities at the time
    -Due to the land bridge that connected Asia to the Americas sinking underwater nobody knew that there was this entire continent on the other side of the world for thousands of years until the 15 century
    -In the 15 century Christopher Columbus proposed an idea to the Portuguese royal family that he could travel to India by sailing west because Europeans were no longer able to travel east because the ottomans revoked European access to Constantinople, therefore preventing trade between Europe and Asia.
    -Christopher Columbus believed that by sailing west he could reach India and not have to go through the Middle East and the Portuguese king accepted Columbus offer
    -Christopher Columbus wasn’t trying to reach the Americas, but instead India and when he landed in the Caribbean islands he thought the inhabitants were Indians and this is why people use the word Indian to refer to native Americas
    -After Christopher Columbus meet the inhabitants of the newly discovered land, he wanted to make the people servants and convert them to Christianity

    Comments:

    After watching the video I was surprised to find out that the reason we call Latin America Latin is that the Southern Europeans wanted more political control in Europe because before I thought that Latin America was called Latin due to the people in this region speaking languages that are derived from Latin such as Spanish and Portuguese and not for political gain. I also never knew that the reason why Columbus decided to sail west to India instead of the east was that Constantinople was now controlled by the ottomans, instead of the Romans which prevented Europeans access to trade with other Asian civilizations.

  5. Notes:
    – When explorers took over and colonized regions they tried to erase all signs of previous life and societies thus claiming they discovered the area and brought life to it.
    – Many prosperous civilizations in the Americas before European arrival including Aztecs, Mayas and Incas.
    – Some Latin American cities even surpassed European cities like London and Paris in terms of size and population.
    – Latin America came to get its name through colonizers deceiving indigenous people with the idea that they were descendants of Europeans from the Latin region of Europe. This was only to take advantage of them and have them as their allies.
    – Original migration to the Americas occurred by people walking across a land bridge that at the time connected present day Northeastern Russia with Alaska.
    – Christopher Columbus was an avid sailor who was Italian and eventually married a Portuguese woman.
    – At the time Europe was struggling economically as Constantinople had been cut off by the Ottomans in turn closing a vital trade route between Asia and Europe.
    – This caused Columbus to look for a new route to take in order to reach India without having to traverse all the way Eastward.
    – The King of Portugal eventually allowed for an expedition sailing Westward which led to Columbus accidentally reaching the Americas instead.
    – After having made contact with the indigenous people Columbus immediately focused his attention on ways to enslave them and/ or convert them to Christianity.

    Comment:
    It is fascinating to see how many events had to occur in order for the Americas to have contact with the Europeans. The Ottoman’s control over Constantinople is what eventually caused Europeans to find a new route to Asia. It would be interesting to see how differently things would play out if Constantinople had never been cut off. While Columbus undoubtedly played a critical role in the unification of the Americas and Europe he did also commit terrible atrocities which shouldn’t be glossed over.

    1. It also would have been interesting to see how differently things would have played out if Columbus had never committed mass genocide amongst the indigenous people of South America. Maybe if they weren’t r*ped, enslaved, and m*rdered, they would have eventually unified themselves. His role was never “critical”, as he had no business (pun intended) being there– saying it was is reactionary.

  6. History of Latin America was not well known until the 19th century.
    Colonization steps: make sure to get rid of any civilization that had occurred before them and then the invaders pretend as if they took control over empty land.
    They erase the indigenous people history and culture by introducing themselves as discovers (people that bring human life).
    Colonizers would justify their violence on different people, different cultures by pretending that nothing even existed before their arrival.
    Historians make sure that they can try to get information by reviving and retrieving peoples’ cultures from that past that has been erased.
    Why do we call this part of the world Latin America? The phrase of Latin America is recent which was traced back to the 19th century. French anthropologists had come up with some of the theories for indigenous people of America, who were certain that they must be from southern Europe. They wanted to present the native Americans as their allies which was based on doubtful evidence.
    Anglo Saxons, Savs and Latins were the three parts that Europe was divided into.
    1st signs of settlements in Latin America goes back to 25,000 years ago.
    Hunter gathers moved up from northern Asia, crossed the land bridge into the Americas and made settlements.
    Gradually spread out through the continent and populated Latin America.
    There were 150 million people settled by the time Europeans had arrived.
    The land bridge disappeared under the sea because the sea levels rose which led to Europeans not knowing about this land.
    Constantinople was an important city because it was the center of the spice trade.
    1407 Constantinople fell to the muslims to the ottomans. Ottomans cut off the access from Europe to Asia.
    In the 15th Century, Christopher Columbus proposed that he could find a way to travel west to India so that they would not get through the Middle East, which was accepted by the Portuguese King.
    Columbus wanted to make the people slaves and make them convert to christianity.

    This video was actually very informative and gave me a new understanding of colonization. Colonization in high school for me was briefed over and this video made me understand how much colonizers had an effect on history. I was able to understand why Latin America was called that but it made me realize the extent colonizers would take to get rid of history. This actually intrigues me because I became curious to what lengths colonizers would go to get rid of history. Would they try to burn physically anything that reminded the people of who they were and if so did they torture people to submit into their own power? This video also showed me Christopher Columbus’ automatic plans to trap these Indian Americans through his first diary. It just showed me that he never had good intentions from the beginning and only tried to find a way to benefit his country.

  7. Notes:
    -We didn’t know much about the Pre-Columbus era until recently
    -They erased Indigenous history and culture which is why we know so little about the indigenous people
    -A lot of colonizers like Columbus erased everything but pretended that nothing existed before they arrived to justify what they did
    -Historians try to revive and retrieve these cultures that have been eradicated
    -Textual evidence is most useful
    -The phrase Latin America is very recent
    -The 3 categorizations were The Slavs for Eastern Europeans and Russians, the Anglo-Saxons for the British. The UK, and parts of Scandinavia, and the Latin which was in Southern Europe which is the Mediterranean region
    -This region has been populated for at least 20,000 years
    -Hunter gatherers came from the land bridge and it spread out to the Americas which was gradual so it took about thousands of years
    -By the Europeans came, about 150 million people have settled in America
    -Columbus was Italian from Genoa, obsessive sailer
    -Spices was the wealth of Europe by reselling China and India’s spices
    -Everything went through Constantinople and it was an important trading center
    -In 1470, Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Empire which changed the trades dramatically because of the cut off from Europe
    -Columbus planned to go westward to India but instead landed in the Bahamas
    -2 of his intentions were to make the Native Americans slaves and Christians

    Comment: After watching the video, it’s astonishing how many years of history had to occur for the truth to finally come out. Additionally, I did not know that Latin America originated from the Southern Europeans. It was interesting to find out that Columbus landed in the Americas instead of India. It makes me wonder if he did not end up in America, would another sailor have done similar things as he did? Another questionable thing was why was his intention to make the indigenous people slaves if he was just going out to explore? I now understand why the story of Columbus is so debated and why our elementary teachers have taught us wrong. It’s also mind-blowing to think that all colonizers had the same tactic- to wipe out all people on the land. It’s sad to think about all the information and cultures that we lost because of them. Even though historians work their best to recover it, there must be remnants that will be forever lost.

  8. The Conquest

    Notes:
    -Little was known about Latin America until Christopher Columbus
    -the conquerors tried to make it as if they were taking over new land, erasing any sign of previous life and civilizations there
    – a historian’s job is to retrieve any sort of evidence of culture, whether it be architectural or textual
    – these examples of evidence is how we know about the Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas
    – this part of the world is called Latin America because French anthropologists had “proof” that Native Americans must have come from Europe so that they could present them as their allies when Europe was divided into the Slavs, Anglo-Saxons, and Latin
    – Latin America civilization goes back at least 25,000 years ago
    – Hunter gatherers were able to walk from Russia straight onto Alaska because they were connected back then but now divided by the sea
    – this land bridge is the reason why the Europeans didn’t know about the existence of this continent
    – the spice trade and the silk road both crossed through Constantinople and was crucial to the network and the Ottomans took over Constantinople in 1470 and cut off the access to Europe and their economies began to fall
    -Quote from Columbus’ diary “They ought to make good and skilled servants. For they repeat very quickly whatever we say to them. I think they can very easily be made Christians for they seem to have no religion. If it pleases our lord, I would take 6 of them to your highness when I depart in order that they may learn our language.”

    Comments:
    I don’t quite understand the purpose of obliterating the previous life and civilizations in Latin America beforehand, why not just take it over and be done with it?
    I had always thought that the reason the Portuguese sent Columbus was to find a quicker route to India, not because the Ottomans had taken over the route and they had to find another route to continue the trade.
    When you had said the quote from Columbus’ diary that “I think they can very easily be made Christian” I instantly had remembered the three G’s of exploration; God, Gold, and Glory.

    1. I agree that there is no good reason to destroy the previous life and civilizations when conquering new lands. It is only for personal gain and legacy. It is not only hurtful to those whose traditions were obliterated, but it is also destructive to the history of mankind. We now know less about the world and where we came from due to these civilizations being erased. Until I read your post, I forgot about the three G’s of exploration, so I think that you made a very good connection in your post.

  9. – We actually knew very little about the Americas until Christopher Columbus came.
    – Colonial empires tend to destroy the cultures and people they conquer. Reobtaining these old records is a pain.
    – The term “Latin America” came from European anthropologists, especially French ones, who believe Native Americans were from the Mediterranean.
    – Humans migrated from Siberia to the Americas when the world was in an ice age
    – Columbus married a Portuguese woman, which explains why he ended up with a Portuguese woman.
    – The Ottomans conquered Constantinople and destroyed the Byzantines, shutting Europe out of the spice trade.
    – This forced Portugal and Spain to find new trade routes
    – Portugal went around Africa to get to India, while Columbus wanted to just travel westward to get to India
    – Spain accepted Columbus’s plan and that’s how they ended up in the Americas.
    – Spain wanted the Natives to become Christians and good slaves.

    Comments: All in all, I think today’s lesson was a useful recap of world history. I did learn a few interesting facts, however. I never knew where the term Latin America came from. I was under the impression that the reason why it was called “Latin” was that Spain was a descendant of the Roman empire, and Spain conquered huge chunks of the Americas while simultaneously spreading their culture. It was interesting to learn that the term was derived from a complete misconception that the Native Americans were believed to be actually from the Mediterranean Region.

  10. Julie Guo
    Notes:
    – One of the 1st things they do to colonize is obliterated all signs of civilizations before that
    – In order to justify the violence inflicted, colonizers act like nothing was there before they arrived
    – Important tasks for historians is to revive and retrieve the obliterated cultures
    – Europe divided into 3 categories
    – Slavs for eastern Europeans and Russians
    – Anglo-Saxons for the British and part of Scandinavia
    – Latin for southern Europe and Mediterranean region
    – 20,000 years ago the first hunter-gathers crosses a land bridge into North America and gradually spread across the continent
    – 150 million people settled in America before Europeans came
    – Sea levels rose and the land bridge went under which caused Europeans to not know about the existence of the continent for thousands of years
    – Exchange of goods and spices between Asia and Europe
    – 1470: Ottomans staged a rebellion and drove Roman out of their land
    – Changed the dynamic of the trade
    – Ottoman and cut off the access of the Europeans to Asia
    – European economy started to shrink
    – 15 Century: Columbus believed that sailing west would get him to India
    – Believed he was in India and when he wrote letters back, he called the Native Americans “Indians” which is how they got that name

    Comment: Before watching this video, I didn’t know that Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas were obliterated civilizations but were revived by historians. In school when we briefly talked about those civilizations, it was never mentioned. It is sad to see how colonization has led to the obliteration of civilizations that we may never know about. In the video, I was also able to learn more about Christopher Columbus. I knew that Christopher Columbus planned to find a new route to India for trade but never knew the back story to that. It was because the Ottomans cut off access between Europe and Asia which led the European economy to decline. Due to this, they needed to find another passage to Asia. It is crazy to think that the actions of the Ottoman Empire led to America being found by Europe. If the Ottoman Empire never cut off access to the trade route, the world would be a lot different today.

  11. JENNIFER LEE
    -Pre-Columbus era- didn’t really know until recently till 19th century.  
    -History of colonialism- a nation goes and colonizes another nation. They would obliterate all signs of presence of any civilization. Pretend they conqueror empty land or uncharted territory and introduce themselves as discoverers.  
    -In order to justify their (European) violence, they say they have different cultures and nothing existed before they arrived.  
    -Important tasks historians- trying to revive these obliterated cultures. And reconstruct a civilization from the ashes of history from the ruins that colonialism left behind.  
    -WHY DO WE CALL PART OF THIS WORLD LATIN AMERICA? 
    Colonialism “names” things and turn things into “facts” “Domestic consumption” inside Europe.  Europe created a story that their ancestors are Mediterranean to present them as Native Americans as their allies 
    -Due to change in climate, continents have been separated. But thousands of years ago, hunter gathers were able to travel from northern Asia upwards.  

    15th century- beginning of conquest 

    -Christopher Columbus who was an obsessive sailor and married a Portuguese woman and joined the royal navy. 
    -2nd photo is the spice trade.  
    -1470- Constantinople fell to the Muslims and ottomans who staged a rebellion to draw romans out of land. Which effected the sudden change to the trade. Europe economy started to shrinks. 
    -Unexplored land to the west by going around India. There is still a misunderstanding of how Americans were named Indians.  
    -Columbus quote from diary- make the natives servant/slaves and Christians. 

    Comments:  

    I felt sick when I heard Columbus direct quotes in his diary to enslave Native Americans and to turn the, Christians. There is a large hero mentality Europeans had and how they don’t consider the existence of previous generations.  I want to know if there is anything good about colonialism because at this moment, I don’t see any good that comes from colonizing and obliterate all signs of presence of any civilization. 

    1. I, too, feel sick when discussing colonialism; it’s such a shame. I also agree that Columbus, like most conquistadors, exhibit superiority and savior complexes. Fun fact: these superiority complexes are the ones that invented the concept of race. These people knew exactly what they were doing and benefitted from doing such.

  12. Stacy Keta

    Notes-
    – First settlement was 20,000 years ago but didn’t know much until the 19th century
    -The indigenous history and culture was obliterated which is why we have little information about them; “incognito” as they say in Latin
    – Colonizers like Columbus justified the violence of erasing past civilization by acting like nothing existed before
    – Historians have retrieved erased cultures through textual and architectural evidence which is how we know about Mayans, Aztecs, Incas, etc
    – The term Latin America is a recent one that came from European anthropologists that believed Native’s came from Southern Europe
    – Europe was divided into three categories; The Slavs (Eastern Europeans, Russians), The Anglo-Saxons (the British, the UK) and the Latin’s (Southern Europe, Mediterranean)
    – There was a land bridge that hunter gatherers crossed to go into America; populated and spread into different areas which took thousands of years. They used to be able to walk from Russia to Alaska before sea levels rose and became divided by ocean.
    – There were cities larger than London before European colonization
    – Since the sea levels rose, Europeans didn’t know about the existence of this continent (Until the 15th century)
    – Christopher Columbus was an obsessive sailor that was dedicated to exploring. He ended up in the royal navy in Portugal through his wife
    – The spice trade was where Europeans got a lot of their wealth
    – The city of Constantinople (modern day Turkey) was the center of the trade. Everything that was traded between Europe and Asia went through this city. When the city fell to the Ottomans, the trade was cut off.
    – Since Europeans flourished from the trade, they were left in an unfavorable situation in 1470 when the access was cut off
    – Columbus thought he could get to India by sailing westward into the unexplored body of water without going through Asia
    – He submitted his proposal to the King of Portugal and that is how this all started
    – He intended for India but landed in the Bahamas. This is why Native Americans were referred to as Indians
    – First diary entry Columbus wrote after landing in the Bahamas was about how the Natives could make good servants and Christians. He was a missionary

    Comments-
    The lesson gave a good rundown of the beginning of the recorded history. What was new to me was the origin of the name “Latin America”. I also found Columbus’ role in the conquest interesting. He had gotten a lot of praise throughout history for being the first to find the Americas but the diary entry from when he landed said a lot about his true character. I feel that a lot of his barbaric actions were overlooked in history. Additionally, the whole concept of eradicating cultures I found to be cruel and it has hindered historians from knowing more about the older histories. Overall this video gave me a better understanding of the start of the conquest.

  13. Akiva Tarnow-Fine
    Notes from the video:
    There wasn’t much known abt the Americas until Columbus’ conquest
    It was common for nations to conquer others and get rid of any sort of civilization that was there before them, was used as a sort of excuse for the violence that ensued
    Latin America got its name from anthropologists whose lack of real research led them to believe that the people who lived in the Americas were ancestors of the Latin people in Europe
    The Americas have been populated for around 20,000 years, people came here using the land bridge that existed between alaska and russia
    There were cities in the Americas before conquest that were larger than European cities
    Columbus was dedicated to sailing and discovering new lands
    Constantinople was the key to the spice trade, in 1470 it fell to the Ottomans who cut off the access of Europeans to Asia, led to European economies shrinking
    Columbus thought that now that Europe was cut off from Asia, he may be able to sail using the Atlantic to get around to Asia
    Columbus writes in his diary explaining his intention of teaching the natives Christianity, and making them into servant

    Comments: Within the American school system, it is common to learn and read about Columbus. I remember my 5th grade teacher explaining to me all of the heroic deeds Columbus had done to reach America, however, as I learn more about his doings, it is more than obvious that Columbus is far from the g-dsend that I was taught he was. The last part of the lecture was particularly interesting to me because it shows what his initial intentions were; he admits to wanting to force European culture upon the natives, and to make them servants for him and his king. I also found it interesting how Latin America got its name from dubious research done by anthropologists in the 19th century (I never really understood how it got its name until now).

  14. Norbert Kopec –

    The Conquest Notes
    – We didn’t know much until recently
    – Little is known about the time before Christopher Columbus
    – We tend to know so little about indigenous cultures are colonizers tend to obliterate all signs of life when they arrive
    – The job of a historian is to retrieve evidence about the culture, society, and time based on architectural and textual evidence
    – The phrase Latin America traces back to the early 19th century. Influenced by European politics at the time and a desire for more allies
    – This region of the world has been populated for at least 20,000 years
    – Cities in the Americas that were larger than London and Paris at the time prior to the Columbus era
    – Christopher Columbus was an avid sailor from a young age. Married a Portuguese woman which is how he ended up in Portugal and joined royal navy of Portugal at the time
    – Spice trade was important for Europe’s economy at the time
    – When the Ottoman Empire took over Constantinople (an important place for trade between Europe and Asia), they cut off the spice trade which led to Christopher Columbus’s idea of traveling west of Spain to go around to India rather than having to go through Asia
    – King of Portugal accepted this proposal which would lead to the discovery of the Americas. When Christopher Columbus arrived in the Bahamas, he thought he was in India at first

    Comments
    I found it interesting to hear where the term Latin America originated from and seeing that there was political influence to the creation of this term. Prior to watching your video, I’ve heard of Christopher Columbus sailing in hopes of landing in India but had never heard that the reason was that Constantinople was taken under control by the Ottomans and consequently cut off the spice trade between Europe and Asia. I also found it quite interesting to see just how clear Christopher Columbus’s intentions were from the very beginning as his first two thoughts were to enslave the people and convert them to Christianity while feeling superior to them while barely having just discovered their existence. As a general statement, I find it interesting to see how little we know about the time period before Christopher Columbus. Despite so many people living in that region prior to the arrival to Columbus there is little information and evidence of their existence.

  15. Jhonathan Mizhquiri
    Notes :
    – The history of Latin America was not well known previous to the 19th century
    – Colonial empires have a history of taking over and destroying the previous way of life
    – Wanted to portray the Native Americans as their allies to Europe
    – A land bridge once connected Alaska and Russia but it was submerged underwater
    – Christopher Columbus thought he arrived in India at first which is why until this day, many Native Americans are called Indians
    – Wanted to convert the Natives to Christianity
    – Constantinople was the center of the spice trade
    – Europe was struggling economically because Constantinople fell to the Ottomans which closed a vital trade route between Asia and Europe
    – Columbus sought a new, faster route to reach India without having to go through the Middle East

    Comments:
    This lesson was important because it depicts Christopher Columbus for who he really is. We have a yearly holiday celebrating a man whose accomplishment was discovering a whole new world for us however, history shows how his intentions weren’t always pure and how he was essentially the “bad guy” to Native Americans. Attempting to erase their history, civilization, religion, etc. and make them slaves show malicious his intentions were when attempting to colonize this newfound land. I also learned that the reason Columbus sailed west instead of east was because Constantinople fell through to the ottomans which blocked Europe’s access to trade with other Asian civilizations and therefore destroyed Europe’s economy.

  16. Tercia Dobrzynski
    Notes
    – Colonists pretended to have discovered an empty land, destroying a civilization that had already existed
    – Textual evidence is the most important and useful evidence to reconstruct a civilization that colonists have destroyed
    – Latin America- named from colonialism, is a recent phrase traced from the 19th century
    – French anthropologists “researched” and came up with shaky theories of indigenous Native American people. They assumed their ancestors were from Southern Europe
    – Europe was divided into 3 categories, the Slavs, Anglo saxons, and the Latin
    – Latin America has been populated for at least 20,000 years
    – 150 millions people settled in America already when colonists arrived, with cities having populations larger than Europe cities
    – Christopher Columbus was a sailor from Genoa, an avid student of geography and astronomy
    – Spice trade was the most lucrative business in Europe which a lot of wealth came from exchange
    – Constantinople was the most important trading center in the world at the time
    – In 1470, Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Empire who drove the Romans out of their land
    – This caused a sudden shift in the dynamic of trade, in 1471 they cut off all trade from Europe which causes their economies to shrink

    Comments
    I’ve always found it disheartening how growing up in school we were always led to believe a false narrative of who Christopher Columbus was. We were taught that he helped the ‘Indians’ and saved them, even giving him a holiday to celebrate. Looking at the facts and from a different perspective, it is clear how he destroyed civilizations and was then praised for it. When you read the quote from his journal, it just proves what the Europeans motives were straight away, I don’t even want to imagine what other awful things he thought and wrote about in his journal. It was interesting to hear the origin of the term Latin America, I did not realize this was a fairly new term and based on shaky evidence from French anthropologists. Overall, this brief introduction to the conquest was insightful and a good start to learning more about the history of Latin America.

  17. Nur Rahman
    -We didn’t know much about Latin American history till the 19th century before the conquest of Christopher Colombus
    -Colonialism follows a pattern where they pretend they conquer an empty land to introduce themselves to discovered who bring life to an area while erasing indigenous culture and life. -The main reason why we know so little about it. Justifies the violence
    -Why do we call this world Latin America- early 19th century, anthropologist, mostly french, most research is unfounded, decided that the ancestors must be from Southern Europe. Came up w a theory about domestic consumption
    -Europe was divided into 3 categories
    1. Anglo Saxons- British, UK, and part of Scandanavia
    2. Slavs- eastern Europeans and Russians
    3. Latins- Southern Europe and Mediterranean region
    -Presented Native Americans as their allies in the political scene in Europe
    -Latin America was populated 25k years ago and there was a land bridge that connected Alaska and Russia, where the first hunter-gatherers came to America and made settlements.
    -Due to the sea level rising, they are separated now.
    -Constantinople was financially struggling since the Ottoman empire cut them off access to Asia so Christopher Columbus proposed the idea of going west trying to go straight to India without going into areas that the Ottoman cutoff. The king of Portugal accepted his request.
    -Instead of landing in India, Columbus landed in the Bahamas and called the Native Americans, Indians

    Comments:
    I never knew that Christopher Columbus discovered America like that. In elementary school, I was taught that Columbus was an adventurous explorer and simply wanted to explore the entire world. I never knew that Christopher Columbus’s intent was to go to India because Constantinople got cut off from the spice and now it makes so much sense why Native Americans were called Indians. It is also interesting how the fall of Constantinople which occurred because of trades being cut off affects America now because when Columbus came, capitalism from Europe quickly came to Latin America and trading became the new necessary thing as well as the 3 G’s, god, gold, and glory. Columbus came and wanted to convert people to Christianity and make them servants.

  18. Alice Gonzalez
    Notes:
    Pre-Columbus Era
    -We know very little about America before the conquest -> before Columbus arrived
    Pattern of Colonialism
    -When a nation is colonized the colonists obliterate the presence of the civilization before them
    -Pretend they conquer empty land “uncharted territory”
    -Discoverers title themselves as those who bring life to these lands
    ->Erase indigenous history
    -the reason why we know little of indigenous culture around the world
    -ex: Africa, Asia, Latin America, America
    -The eraser is used to justify the violence from their colonization
    -pretend nothing existed before they arrived
    -Sweep their dirty work under the rug
    -French anthropologists -came up with theories about natives -thought their ancestors were from southern Europe -Mediterranean Spain France Italy
    -they created a historical story about the ancestors of the Native Americans being from Europe to present them as their allies
    -how this part of the world was named Latin America
    – Latin America has been populated for over 20 thousand years
    -1st sign of settlements in Latin America was found over 25 thousand years
    -they were hunter-gatherers who moved up from northern Asia
    -crossed land bridge to America ->doesn’t exist anymore -our geography changed
    -when Europeans arrived in America 150 million people were already settled in the land
    -these settlements had cities larger than London and Paris at the time -natives were advanced than Europeans
    -land bridge went underwater -how European didn’t know the existence of America
    Columbus
    -obsessive sailor -student of astronomy and geography – dedicated to sailing and finding new lands -married Portuguese women -how he joined the royal navy of Portugal
    -wealth of Europe came from the spice trade -Venice profited from the spice trade
    -city of Constantinople
    -1470 the city of Constantinople fell to the Ottomans -staged rebellion -drew Romans out of the land -caused a change in trade -cut off access of the Europeans to Asia -economies shrank
    -Columbus submits a proposal to the king of Portugal to travel westward with intentions to find a route to India -which is why Colombus thought native Americans were Indians
    -Columbus wants to enslave and make natives Christian

    Comments:
    The intentions of Columbus are shown to be operated by a man who is driven by the need for glory and recognition. Throughout this lesson, we are able to view the actions of Columbus as he first ventured out to America. As he followed the pattern of colonialism by declaring the land he set foot on as uninhabited in order to gain the title of the founder of this “new” land. Yet this is far from the truth, as millions of Native Americans were already settled and thriving within this land. In order to continue the illusion of this land being an uncharted territory, the colonists commenced the eraser of indigenous culture. To hide the fact that the natives were already a developed society with their own advancements of cities and religion. Therefore, I appreciated the transparent lecture regarding the actions of Columbus as a man who participated in malicious activities for his personal gain.

  19. Joseph Guedalia

    The Conquest
    He was obsessed with sailing and was very into astronomy and conquest
    There was a lot of spice trade, a lot of wealth came from the EU to Asia and back, that is how Venice became Venice
    The city of Constantinople is the key to the trade road
    In 1470 Constantinople fell to the Muslims, the Ottomans
    In 1471, the main artery for trade was cut off between Asia and the EU, suddenly the economies started to shrink
    This was the same time that Columbus was in Portugal
    Columbus thought, that since they cut off our path to Asia by land, what if he could go by sailing to the west
    He believed if he went west he would get to India
    He submitted the plan to the King, to go to India
    When he arrived in America he thought he landed in India
    That is why Native Americans are referred to as Indians because that is where Columbus thought he was
    Columbus diary: “they ought to make good and skilled servants, they repeat everything you say to them, they can easily be converted to Christianity and they can learn our language if it pleases the lord I can bring back 6 of them and they can learn our language”
    Right away you can see Columbus’s main goal was to convert them to Christianity and enslave them

    Comments: I found two things incredibly interesting about Columbus’s conquest. The first is that the city of the natural geography of Europe played such a large role in the discovery of America. Had Constantinople not been so critical to trade then even when it was taken over Columbus never would have had a reason to go the other way (by sea) to get to Asia. Secondly, I find it both interesting and scary to see how formulaic Columbus was when he got to America, it is almost as if he was programmed. When he saw the Natives he immediately understood they could be converted and enslaved easily. It just shows that great empires and colonial monstrosities happen through deep thinking ahead and systematic destruction.

  20. Ricky Chen
    Notes
    -Not much is known about the Americans before the conquest is really known due to the obliteration of any civilization before them leading to a lack of indigenous culture and history
    -In order for colonizers to justify their actions and violence, they acted as though the land had nothing before their arrival
    -Europe at the time was split into three categories, the slavs in the eastern, the Anglo-Saxons, and then the Latin which was in Southern Europe
    -Latin America was named Latin to create this new land that was supposedly their allies
    -The first signs of settlement in Latin America go back 25,000 years ago with hunter-gatherers who moved from Northern Asia and crossed the land bridge into the Americas
    -By the time of European arrival, there were already about 150 million people settled into the Americas in the pre-Columbus era
    -Columbus was an Italian from Genoa who loved traveling the world and sailing. He married a Portuguese woman and later joined the Portugal navy
    -The spice trade was the most lucrative trading system at the time as many merchants would get spices from Asia and sell them
    -Constantinople was the most important trading post as everything had to go through the city but once the Ottomans took over, they cut off the Europeans in 1471
    -Columbus thought about traveling West in the water to reach India directly without having to go through Asia so he got approval from the king
    -Columbus first landed in the Bahamas and believed that they were the Indians which was how he addressed them. Columbus when he first met them, wanted to turn them into slaves or converting them to Christianity

    Comments
    The most interesting part of the lesson that I learned today was actually the origin of the name Latin America which turned out to be because Europe at the time was split into three large political landmarks, with Latin Europe being in the South. Another interesting part of the history that I did not know of was that Constantinople was at the center of the trade between Europe and Asia meaning that all trade had to go through them. However, once the Ottoman empire took over and cut off European trade, that was when Christopher Columbus set out to find a different out to India. I always thought that the reason for Columbus’ journey was in search of a faster route to reach India but it turns out that is not entirely correct. I also did not know that the first place that Columbus landed on was the Bahamas. It was disheartening to hear what Columbus wrote in his diary because while he was offered peace offerings, all he wished to do was colonize the people into slaves and convert them to Christianity.

    1. I think it’s important that you highlighted Columbus’ idea of converting the indigenous people to Christianity. In his journal entry, he exacerbates on sacrificing the natives “for the Lord”. This indirectly exposes how he tried to justify the colonization through Christianity. Colonialism has replaced indigenous culture with western culture, specifically religion. Columbus believed they had no religion based off of the natives’ physical appearance, also indirectly proving how Christianity and white supremacy go hand in hand.

  21. Notes:
    With this class, especially the Pre-Columbus era- we did not know much about it until very recently. This pattern happens a lot in colonialism. They obliterate any signs of the civilization before them as if they conquered an empty land. They introduce themselves as the discoverers who bring life to that piece of land. This is the main reason why we know so little about indigenous cultures around the world.
    Colonizers justify the pain they inflict by pretending that nothing existed before they arrived. Columbus did this.
    Historians try to revive these obliterated cultures from the ruins that colonialism has left behind.
    Why do we call this part of the world Latin America?
    19th century, anthropologists through “research” came up with theories about the indigenous people of the Americas and decided that their ancestors must be from southern Europe (evidence was shaky). This made sense for them because they knew what was within the European territories.
    They wanted to present these indigenous people as their allies, which is why they called this part of the world Latin America.
    North of Asia was connected to the Americas, which is how people traveled (over “land bridges”). They spread out and populated the continent.
    150 million people were already settled in the Americas when Europeans arrived there.
    15th century- Christopher Columbus was Italian.
    He loved sailing and went all over. He was an avid student of geography and astrology. He wanted to discover new lands around the world.
    He married a Portuguese woman and that’s how he ended up there.
    Roads brought goods to Asia and exchange things for spices.
    Constanopial, which is today Turkey, there were two bodies of water between Europe and Asia (today Middle East). It was the contact point of two seas, so everything went through this city and was the most important trading center in the World at the time. For hundreds of years, it was a part of the Roman Empire.
    It fell to the Muslims (the ottomans), which drove the Romans out of their land. There was a sudden change in the dynamics of the change because they cut off the Europeans to Asia. The main artery was cut off to Europe, which cut off the money they were receiving. This caused their economies to shrink. They had to look outwards.
    There was a huge unexplored body of water west of Spain. Columbus thought that since they cut off the access to trade through land, he can go around by sea to India. So he can do trade directly with Indians without going directly through Asia. He submitted a proposal to the King of Spain and he accepted.
    When Columbus landed in the Bahamas, he thought he was in India, which is why Native Americans were called Indians.
    From Columbus’s diary “They ought to make good and skilled servants, for they repeat very quickly what we say to them. I think they can very easily be made Christians, for they seem to have no religions…”
    He has two ideas on how to deal with these people: to make them slaves or convert them to Christianity.

    Personal Comments:

    I find it interesting how those who would conquer new lands, especially Columbus, seek to rewrite history to be in their favor. They erase what was known to the indigenous people beforehand. It shows how the Europeans sought power and a positive legacy over those that they saw as inferior. I personally thought it was interesting how Latin America was named. Many of the facts taught in this lesson were not taught to me beforehand, which shows how history can be biased by those who write it, specifically those Europeans associated with Columbus. Also, history has patterns, which is shown in the quote that ended the video in which Columbus states that the indigenous people are good to be servants or to be converted to Christianity. I also find it interesting how many things are driven by money and power, since the reason Columbus wanted to sail West was that the trade to India through Asia was cut off.

    1. I also find it strange and interesting that they decided to erase anything known to the indigenous and because of this we know less about them as we should. I feel it was unnecessary to destroy the culture, why not just take over the land and maybe even threaten the locals to go elsewhere?

      Overall, I agree with most of your comments.

  22. Anabel Fernandez
    Notes:
    -The first settlement of America takes back to 20,000 years ago.
    -When a nation goes and colonizes another country (especially in the modern area), the first thing they do is obliterate any signs of the civilization and anyone before them.
    -They introduce themselves as the discovers and pretend as if nothing existed before.
    -Colonists erase indigenous culture and history; the reason why we know so very little about indigenous cultures, especially the periphery of the European empire.
    -For many years, this had been the practice of colonizers to justify the violence they inflict on different cultures to different degrees based on their periods.
    -The main task for the historian is to try to revive and retrieve these obliterated cultures using architectural and textural evidence.

    Comment:
    The colonist mindset lacks compassion and cares for human beings. History has proven that instead of acknowledging cultures and respecting them, colonists eradicate any sign of them for their purpose. Innocent people are treated inhumanely by colonists who do not realize the harm they are doing. They consider themselves saviors, claiming to “bring life” to the empty land. In reality, they are annihilators. Colonists do not deserve the praise they receive because though they start a new civilization, they destroy the previous one. Christopher Columbus’ famous voyage led to none other than a discovery of “terra incognita.” America just happened to be another empty land for the taking, a win for Europeans while native Americans already resided there. Christopher Columbus saw first hand the aftermath of colonization when the Ottomans took over Constantinople in 1470 and cut off access to trade to Europeans. Instead of empathizing with the Native Americans, he considered them gullible and barbaric. He should have been thanking them for teaching him their ways, not crucifying them.

  23. Its interesting to learn about how colonizers would essentially erase any traces of previous civilization and go on to “pretend” they discovered new land as well as how historians have to uncover those parts of history. After this video I’m understanding more why many people don’t like how textbooks teach us that Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas. I’m interested in hearing more about his entries as they show how he felt about everything and they show his true intentions from the beginning.

  24. Bridget Campanelli
    The Conquest Notes
    Didn’t know much about history before columbus until recently (19th century)
    Colonizers try to erase history of people living in conquested land before them
    Other civilizations’ existence has been trampled on and obliterated
    European and french anthropologist came up with theories about indigineous people of america and thought their ancestors were from southern europe
    Wanted to present native americans as their allies, led to name of latin america
    There was already about 150 million people settled in america before europeans came over, they had cities larger than london and paris
    Sea levels rose and wiped out city so no one knew of existence
    Spice trade bought most of wealth to europe and asia, very lucrative business
    Everything that went between asia and europe had to go through constantinople
    Constantinople was one of the most important trade centers
    Fell to ottomans who cut off trade access; prompted columbus to attempt to go west to find india
    Columbus thought native americans were indians; wanted to make them slaves and convert them to christianity

    After watching the video, I was very shocked to find that most of history was unknown until very recently. It’s amazing how much we can learn in such a short period of time, but also shocking that many people’s existence was ignored and unheard of for so long. I was also very interested to learn that the reason we call Native Americans Indians is because Christopher Columbus thought he had found India when he landed in America. It’s always shocking to hear about how many bad things he did, like enslaving the natives and trying to convert them because it was always taught to us in school how much of a hero he was. I think it’s very interesting to see how retelling of history can be warped and distorted over time to make people look a certain way. It was disturbing to hear how he wanted to enslave an entire group of people and cared more about his own goals than a whole population’s existence. Columbus committed a lot of terrible actions that need to be taken into account more often, because many people just see him as a hero that discovered America.

  25. Conquest Notes

    -Its crazy how much we have just discovered recently
    -First settlement was 20,000 years ago but not much was known till the 19th century
    -Colonial people name things and it just stays that way
    -Divided Europe into 3 categories: The Slavs (Eastern Europeans, Russians), The Anglo-Saxons (the British, the UK) and the Latin’s (Southern Europe, Mediterranean)
    -150 million people settled in America before Europeans came
    – There were cities way larger than London
    -Columbus was a very dedicated sailor from a young age. He married a Portuguese woman which is how he ended up there.
    -There was a lot of trade routes but the city of Constantinople was the most important, everything went here; was like the center of trade
    -In 1470 Constantinople fell to the Ottomans, this made a sudden change in trade because of certain cut offs
    -Columbus was trying to take to the sea in the west and find a new route to India without having to go through Asia
    -When he got off at the Bahamas he thought it was India, which is why he called Native Americans Indians

    Comments:
    Its kind of cool to get to know the history of how and why Colombus found the Americas. The diary entry was also nice to read because it kind of gave us insight on to what Columbus was thinking and feeling. I feel like a lot of us know who Columbus is and have heard of him since like the 4th grade but we never really learned deeply about him. It was a good recap to the beginnings of Columbus and how the Americans were found but more so why this “accident” happened. I never really knew about the Ottoman take over of Constantinople but it was sad to hear that they cut a lot of the trade routes that many people used to get things from place to place.

    -Sanduni Samarasinghe

  26. Hei Lai Lam

    I liked the simple, but essential recap of The Conquest. It briefed colonialism, how Europeans like Columbus “discovered” places such as Latin America (after failing to reach India), regions far away from their home on the other side of Earth, and basically forced their powers onto the innocent natives (Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas) to become more “civilized” as a way of converting them into their people religiously and for economic/social gains. Columbus embarked on his royal journey after the spice route got cut off because Constantinople fell to the Turks. The route was made possible previously because there was a land bridge between Alaska and Europe/Asia that connected them to the Americas. Also, I learned why Latin America is called what it is, because in the 19th century Europeans theorized Native Americans’ ancestors are from Southern Europe (Italy, France, and Spain) to make them their allies with very questionable evidence. This was a good review.

    1. I completely agree with your comment because it was a very big refresher to listen to the video. It also allowed us to learn more facts that aren’t usually discussed in history classes given in high school. The video was simplified and understandable which made it very interesting to listen to as well.

  27. Notes:
    The course starts within the last 500 years
    The pre-Columbus era wasn’t a known subject……. Up until the 19th century, very little was known about the conquest of the Americas
    It should not be surprising that colonialism took place in America and that any civilization that was established was obliterated.
    One of the first things that would usually occur during an imperial takeover, was the destruction of any existing civilization
    The country that takes over, takes the route of diminishing any progress created by the indigenous people inhabiting the acquired land (erasing of indigenous culture and history)
    The erasing of any indigenous history allows us as a society to not know much about their culture
    Why is it called Latin America?- the Colonizers gave this name and the name is fairly recent as well.
    French anthropologists did much research about the indigenous people and they decided that their ancestors must be from southern Europe (Mediterranean, Spain, France, Italy, etc.)
    They came up with this theory with very shaky evidence
    When it came to ethnic categorization, Europe was broken into three main parts: Slavs for eastern Europeans and Russians, Anglo-Saxons for the English, UK, and parts of Scandinavia, and the Latins for Southern Europe
    The use of shaky evidence allowed for the reduction of political conflict and in a way, it reduced tensions caused by colonialism…… this is how the term Latin America was devised
    One thing that is positive for sure is that Latin America has been populated for at least 20,000 years
    The hunter-gatherers were able to cross a land bridge from Russia to Alaska
    When the Europeans first arrived in the Americas, there were already 150 million people settled amongst the land
    In the 15th century, Christopher Columbus, an Italian explorer, was sailing since he was a teenager, he was an avid student of astronomy and geography
    He ended up in Portugal and joined the Royal Navy of Portugal because he married a Portuguese woman
    The city of Constantinople was very crucial because everything went from Europe to Asia through this specific city
    In 1470, Constantinople fell to the Muslims, driving the Romans out
    The Ottomans that took over Constantinople was cut off and significantly impacted trade
    The Europeans that were making money were starting to lose money rapidly
    Columbus stated that since Constantinople was cut off, he could take the left side of the Earth without having to go through Asia
    The travel westward was intended to go to India, but that was not true and Columbus addressed them as Indians
    “ They ought to make good and skilled servants, for they repeat very quickly whatever we say to them, I think they can very easily be made Christian for they seem to have no religion, if it pleases out lord, I will take 6 of them to your highness when I depart so they may learn our language”- make them slaves and convert to Christianity

    Comments:
    When listening to the video, I found it very interesting to see that the term “Latin America ” was devised as a political means to reduce any political conflict. It was very shocking to me that the term itself was not based on solid evidence but on shaky evidence that was barely proven to be true. For many years, I actually did not know where the term originated from so it was very surprising and interesting to see how it was created. There were many new facts I learned about Christopher Columbus such as him originating from Italy. I was always told that he was a Spanish explorer but it was surprising for me to learn that he is actually an Italian Explorer who later moved to Portugal due to his marriage. It was also surprising to learn the full explanation on why Columbus went West because I was told for many years that it was just a mistake and he intended to go to India, but nobody ever explained the reason also being because Constantinople was cut off by the Ottomans. The video broadened my view on the reasoning of why Columbus chose the West route and also the political yet social background of Latin America.

  28. Chris Sullivan

    Notes:
    – Not a lot of knowledge about this until quite recently
    – The Pre-Columbus era is still an unknown to us
    – Colonizers obliterate the indigenous societies when they are found, leaving little for us to learn about them
    – Calling that region “Latin America” was an attempt at a form of alliance between Europe and them
    – One thing we do know about the era pre-Columbus is that there were cities larger than Paris and London
    – Columbus was a sailor for most of his life before he got his big break
    – Trade with Asia was essential to their economy
    – Plan to go west to get to Asia was formed when access over land was blocked by the Ottomans
    – Calling Latin Americans “Indians” stems from Columbus’ belief that he was in India when he landed there

    Comments:
    Every history class we ever had as kids told us that Columbus was a hero for finding America, and that without him we wouldn’t be where we are today. Although there may be some truth to that, the pain and suffering they forgot to mention to us was not worth it. The idea that Columbus was a savior to the Latin American communities was an absurd one, as he did nothing but treat them poorly. The origin of “Latin America” was one thing that I learned about during this video. This first video of many this semester was an interesting one, and was enlightening on the conquest of Latin America.

  29. Notes
    – Most of pre-Columbian history was discovered more recently, compared to what is written in our textbooks
    – The guilt of colonialism caused thus colonizers to distort history, in attempt to erase any history prior to colonization
    – Western imperialists depicted indigenous civilizations in negative connotations in trying to justify colonization
    – Latin America: a term based on anthropologic theories, given in the 19th century, to “identify” the land of native people
    – Western anthropologists assumed the ancestors of Latin American people came from southern Europe— also assumed that southern europeans were more melanated
    – Although most of its history has been erased, its native people were hunter-gatherers
    – 20,000 years ago, 150 million people were already settled in what is now the U.S.
    – The Bering Strait connected Alaska to Russia, but has eroded over the years
    – Christopher Columbus was an obsessive sailor from Genoa, Italy who began a conquest of colonization in the 15th century
    – His “passion” for “sailing” led him to “discover” the world
    – Through the help of his Portuguese wife, he joined Portugal’s navy to begin his conquest
    – At the time, Europe gained its wealth through mercantilism/trade
    – The city of Constantinople, modern-day Turkey, was an epicenter for trade
    – In 1470, Constantinople was overthrown by muslims— then established this city as the capital of the Ottoman Empire
    – Because of this, most European trade routes to Asia were cut off, leading Columbus to explore west of Spain
    – Columbus made a proposition to the king of Portugal about building new trade routes and trading with the Indians
    – He first reached the Bahamas thinking it was India— from this came the name West Indies
    – The language barrier between Columbus’ people and the natives led Columbus to believe they were obedient to him and often repeated what he said->further led him to believe they would make “great servants”
    – He also wrote (on his FIRST entry) that they would be “easy” to convert as they have no religion-> “if it will please the world i will take six of them back to your highness”
    – The intention, to colonize, is made clear by Columbus

    Our history textbooks are polluted with the idea that colonialism advanced indigenous societies, when in reality, it served as a detriment to them. Columbus was a glutinuous merchant who wanted to increase his wealth to any extent. His desire to expand capitalism elevated its state to no longer capitalism, but to imperialism. One can imagine the shame colonizers must have felt that drove them to erase the truth. Because of this, it is imperative that we educate ourselves outside the classroom— as it has been tainted with lies.

  30. Omar Malik

    Notes:

    -The legacy of Native Americans was basically destroyed at the time due to invasion by Europeans after Christopher Columbus stepped foot in America
    -The idea of European supremacy immediately spread after European invasion
    -First signs of Latin American settlement go back around 25,000 years ago
    -Around the time of European arrival, there were 150,000,000 people in America
    -Columbus was actually an Italian but was an explorer for Spain and a had a passion for power
    -Columbus initially thought he was India when he stepped foot in America, which is why he called the Native Americans “Indians”
    -The Silk Road was of extreme economic significance, due to trade (despite the journey being dangerous)

    Comments:

    Columbus has often been portrayed as a hero for his actions. He is often noted for his actions to help expand power for Spain to help his people. But those who look more into it realize he was actually someone who was just extremely hungry for power and only cared about himself and the Europeans. His thought process involved claiming land which was already claimed by another social group, the Native Americans, which was immoral on every aspect. Native Americans were treated terribly by the Europeans for no reason other than the Europeans’ desire for power expansion.

    I liked this video because it gave a really good insight into important actions regarding Latina America, helping with visualizing and understanding how people were back then.

  31. Noshin Ahmed

    Notes:

    -Know very little about Latin America up until the 19th century
    -When a nation is colonized by colonizers, the colonizer erases almost all presence of the nation and its indigenous history. The colonizer pretends that they took over an empty land.
    -Colonizers erase indigenous history to justify their violence.
    -Historians use architectural evidence and textual evidence to learn more about these erased cultures.
    -Latin America is called Latin America because the French anthropologist 19th century, came up with theories stating that the ancestors of the Native Americans came from southern Europe.
    -Europe was divided into 3 categories: the Slavs, Anglo Saxons, and Latins.
    -They showed Native Americans as their allies.
    -Latin America has been populated for at least 20,000 years.
    -Hunter and gathers who moved from Nothern Asia to the Americas by crossing a land bridge
    -When Europeans arrived already 150 million people already settled in the Americas.
    -There were cities as big/bigger than London and Paris.
    -The Europeans didn’t know about the existence of this continent because the land bridge went underwater.
    -Christopher Columbus loved sailing and exploring
    -The spice trade allowed merchants to get spices from all over Asia.
    -Constantinople was the most important trading center at the time because all trades happened there.
    -1470: Constantinople fell to the ottomans, and the main center of business and trade was cut off.
    -Economies started to go down.
    -Columbus tried to find another route to India.
    -Columbus first landed in the Bahamas and thought it was India.
    -Wanted to make the indigenous people slaves or Christians.

    Comments:

    I found it interesting how the indigenous migrated to the Americas by crossing the land bridge. It is also really interesting to see how one historical event leads to another. Here the fall of Constantinople led to the discovery of Latin America. I find it really sad and disappointing how colonizers have erased the history of the indigenous. It is really disgusting how the first thought Columbus had when he meets the indigenous people was to either make them slaves or turn them into Christians.

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