The Lift of HIV Test for Immgrants

In the late 19th century aliens that wanted an entry into the U.S. must undergo a medical exam as part of their immigration process. In this exam they check for any illness defined as a “communicable disease of public health significance”. These diseases are easily spread between people if they are found to have these diseases they may not enter the U.S., and HIV was one of them.  On November 2, 2009 the department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and CDC removed HIV from this list that kept non U.S. citizens from entering the United State.  They removed HIV because it is not spread through casual contact like hugging or shaking hands. Nor is HIV spread through the air, food or water. It is passed through unprotected sex with someone who has HIV or sharing needles or syringes used by someone with HIV. The revision of 42 CFR Part 34 (Medical Examination of Aliens) removal of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was effective on January 4, 2010. This video above is a special English health report intended for immigrants.

 In 1987 HIV was listed as a “communicable disease of public health significance” Since many has attempted to remove the ban, because it was discriminatory to people living with HIV/AIDS. In 1992, President Clinton tried to do so, but he failed under the pressure from both the Republicans and Democrats. At that time, unless a discretionary waiver was granted non U.S. citizens with HIV were not permitted to enter the country legally. “In order to qualify for a green card waiver, an applicant must first prove that they have a close familial relationship – defined as a parent, child or (heterosexual) spouse – of a lawful U.S. citizen. Then they must show that their admission into the country will not endanger the public health or create burdensome public health care costs.” (http://www.champnetwork.org/hhswatch/the-united-states-hiv-immigration-ban-eliminated-not-so-fast) It was not until 2009 when Obama lifted the ban;  non-citizens with HIV/ACIDS are permitted to enter the country.


The Disabilities Act

One important aspect of the chapter Foner did not elaborated on Chapter 27 is the American with Disabilities Act in 1990.  As early as the 1960s, people with disabilities formed a Civil Right movement to protest against their discrimination by the society. They argued that their isolation and segregation was not a natural result of disability, but rather of physical and attitude barriers. The 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act was the first wide-ranging civil rights law that outlawed disability discrimination in public and private areas in the nation. This means that students with disabilities have an equal right to be in your class, to participate, and to learn just like you and me.

SECTION 2 of the American with Disabilities Act in 1990 mentions that, “physical or mental disabilities in no way diminish a person’s right to fully participate in all aspects of society, yet many people with physical or mental disabilities have been precluded from doing so because of discrimination; others who have a record of a disability or are regarded as having a disability also have been subjected to discrimination.” This shows that how cruel others can be to others that are a little different than them. This primarily purpose of the law was to eliminate discrimination against individuals with disabilities, then later on it developed into more detailed and  beneficial warfare for those who are in need.


Panye & Pink

The 1st video is Freda Payne’s song Bring the Boys Home (1971) that demonstrated her displeases of the Vietnam War in the 70s. “Fathers are pleading, lovers are all alone. Mothers are praying-send our sons back home. You marched them away-yes, you did-on ships and planes. To the senseless war, facing death in vain” The 2nd video is about Pink’s and the Indigo Girls’ song Dear Mr. President that was said to be an open letter to President Bush in 2006 to protest against the Iraq war. “How do you sleep while the rest of us cry? How do you dream when a mother has no chance to say goodbye? How do you walk with your head held high? Can you even look me in the eye and tell me why?” The lyrics in both songs clearly state the singer/writer’s true feeling about war. In Payne’s song her messages were more conservative than Pink’s. As a contemporary singer, Pink speaks out directly to the President’s wrong doing of unwanted hostilities.


Violent Outbreak of the 60s

Injustice and racial equality still existed in the sixties. Many political activism and social changes were made before this time, but America was not free of prejudice (some argue that it still isn’t  today) . The violent outbreak of The Watts in 1965 shown the frustration of racial change during the sixties in Los Angeles. This event marked an uprising violence of black ghettos in the nation. An estimated 50,000 people took part in  attacking police and fireman and burning buildings. 15,000 police were involved to restore order, 900 were injured, 35 people dead, and $30 million worth of property were damaged.  Violence also outbreak in Harlem and Detroit causing some theorists to say that the country was in danger of being torn apart by racial antagonism.


Barbies’ of the 1950s

In chapter 24, Foner discusses American people in  consumerism and freedom of consumer choice in the 1950s. After WWII Americans were desperate for anything, people had the eagerness to buy many things created an economic boom in the U.S. During this time period consumer values dominated the American economy and culture; mass productions of commercials were made to satisfy consumer’s wants and needs. Various commercials appealed people of all ages. Just like now a day advertisements of the 1950s evolved with just anything; automobiles, beverages, toys, the latest fashion trend, and other daily goods. The video footage above is an example of one TV commercial of barbies in the 1950s.


Universal Human Rights

In 1948 Eleanor Roosevelt drafted the United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which established the principle that a nation’s treatment of its own citizens should be subject to outside evaluation. Not only people respected her role as First Lady to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, but she was one of the most influential member of the UN’s Commission on Human Rights. Article 1)All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article 2) Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of Article 3)Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person….Not only the American nation welcomed her policies, but it was adapted in most countries all over the world. Also still is being practice today.


Socialist Plan?

In 1933 Franklin Delano Roosevelt was at desk as the 32nd president of the United States, he introduced a series of programs called the New Deal to relieve the economic problems within the nation responded to the Great Depression. FDR’s goal was to achieve the “3Rs” relieve, recovery, and reform. He vowed that Americans would see changes within the first 100 days of his presidency. At this time about two million Americans were homeless, ¼ of the workforce were unemployed and failure of the banking system led America into chaos. America was panicking; the nation was desperately in need of help. Many believed that the New Deal would aid the nation’s current situation. Whereas others felt that they were being dealt a bad hand and that the government was experimenting in Socialism. This political cartoon depicts believe of FDR’s Socialist plan to the U.S.


The Celebrities of 1920s

The Great Depression

The United States hit the so called  “great era” in the 1920s, Americans suddenly took an interest in the stock market. Many ordinary people believed the stock market was the place to seek for wealth. For almost eight years the stock value has been raising, stocks represented opportunities and dreams. Rich stock investor like Jesse Livermore and Charles Mitchell persuaded many  middle and lower classes to buy and sell stocks. Banker, broker and speculators were celebrities of the day, they represented the wealth of the economy. It was not until 1929 until the when the crash of stock market that led the nation into a tremendous downfall.


Meyer v. Nebraska


 After World War I, Americans were not in favor of all German related things. Language was a major principal focus of legislation at the state and local level. The performance of German music at symphony concerts and the meetings of German-American civic associations were things that Americans find objectionable. Some states and towns even banned the use of German language. On April 9, 1919, Nebraska enacted a statute called Siman Act, a restrictionrelating to the teaching of foreign languages in the state of Nebraska”.

 On May 25, 1920, Robert T. Meyer, when an instructor in Zion Parochial School in Hampton, Nebraska taught the subject of reading in the German language to 10-year-old Raymond Parpart, a fourth-grader. The school charged Meyer with violation the Siman Act. He was found guilty in the Nebraska Supreme Court, he then appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court. As protected by the Fourteenth Amendment. In a 7 to 2 decision, the Court held that it was indeed a violation of the Due Process Clause (an violation of people’s liberty). This was one of the very first cases in which the Court found that people had liberty rights not specifically listed in the Constitution.



As the world entered the 20th century, an arms race had begun. By 1914, Germany had the greatest increase in military buildup. Great Britain and Germany both greatly increased their army size in this time period as well. Further, in Germany and Russia particularly, the military establishment began to have a greater influence on public policy.  Thus the increase in militarism helped push the countries involved into WWI.


Gender Equality In America

The Nineteenth Amendment was passed by Congress June 4, 1919, but it was not ratified  until August 18, 1920. Although women helped during the Civil War, but the 14th Amendment that guaranteed all American men in the nation to vote excluded women.Through many struggles and hardships, women  finally granted their right to vote during WWI. While men were fighting the war overseas, women at home provided tremendous support to help the nation.  From then the society’s gender norm started to shift. Section 1 of the 19th Amendment: The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Section 2: Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


The Standard of Living

An image of John A. Ryan

In 1906 John A. Ryan published an influential book A Living Wage,  based on economic and moral argument of minimum wage legislation. He believed that in the consumer economy it’s a “natural and absolute” right of citizenship to making a standard living wage. John A. Ryan also criticized the inequality of the wealth and power in the Progressive America. The lower class is being taking advantages of whereas the upper class were controling the economy wealth. Based on his political thoughts in moral theology; he translated the Rerum Novarum of Pope Leo XIII in 1894 in English stated that the  endorement of  the right to labor union is necessary.


Traveling to America

The map of the United States compose of all different races of immigrants in the nation.

A political cartoon of illegal U.S. immigrants.

The two images above both associate with the immigration of the United States. The ability of seeking opportunities and many other advantages such as freedom of religion and free education etc…attracted many people all over to world to a new country. Some enter the country risking all costs, even if it’s an unlawful way of doing it. Illegal immigration one of the nation’s main concern over many decades. Above all the diversity of  races shapes many aspect of the nation. The U.S. is to like melting pot to many cultures and  people of  varieties of interests.


The First Vote

Congress passed  the Fifteenth Amendment on February 26, 1869  to the United States Constitution.  It prohibits each government in the nation denying citizens to vote, despite of their race, color, or the previous experience of being a slave  except for women. The drawing from above was by Waud, Alfred R.  to portray the first vote of the African Americans. The intention of the artist was to show the eagerness of the former slaves to vote. This amendment did not only granted the African Americans’ right to vote, but also marked the victory of the Civil War.


Somebody Call 911

In Sept 11, 2001 the clash of the Twin Tower marked an important turning point of American History. Not only it took away about 3000 civilians’ life, it also led to the invasion of Iraq; the War of Terror; nation’s recession and many other indirect results.



There are always different vision of stories as they are told, nevertheless the same goes for the Civil War. Through the lens of the New York Times, we are able to understand the abbreviate content of the text “Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American History” by David Blight. After reading the review I was able to understand the authors perspective of the Civil War, and how it was remembered by others. The way of how history are recorded varies from different authors, and that strongly connects to the authors background. If the author is an oppressed lower class man, he would have a much differ view from an upper class man.

An example of  a shared memory that is remembered in many different ways was the Presidential election of Barack Obama. The first African American as the President of the United States. To the Caucasians, this might have made them feel a little odd. In the other hand this was a glorious day to the colored people. The book sounds quite interesting because the author gathered multiple size of peoples understanding of the war. The book review would most likely benefit students or scholars that are interested in a brief summary of the textbook itself.


Data of The Future

Technology has greatly improved many or most of people’s life throughout the years of computer era. The web has become a place where most people browse for information about just anything; anywhere. Social networking certainly provides unlimited service connecting people all over the world together.  Then again since free social networks like Facebook and Twitter involve with many privacy issues. Many users are concern that their personal lives are being exposed publicly. Yet many idiotic people are posing up statuses or pictures that are laughable to others. No matter what kind of information it is, it could be easily post up on the web. Therefore government is concern about the chance of national secretive data being leak out through WikiLeaks to do possible demage to our country. That is why I think the kind of information being exposed on the web should be at a certain extent. Above all these electronic data will very beneficial to future historians. More records and documents will be easier to attain, so I assume most of them will probably be obese since they will just  sitting in front of the computer rather than going out to do research.