The Beginning of the Civil Rights Movement

A. Philip Randolph’s “March on Washington” which caused President Roosevelt to pass Executive Order 8802, which banned discrimination in defense jobs and established the Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC). A. Philip Randolph’s threat of the “March on Washington” started because of the exclusion of African-Americans in the expanding war industries during World War II. This marked the beginning of the civil rights movement which continued and gave motivation into other equal rights groups in the future. (CH 22 – World War II)

March on Washington 1963

“Gay Liberation” in the sixties. The 1969 police raid on the Stonewall Bar in New York’s Greenwich Village was one of the beginning points of this movement. According to Foner, “Rather than bowing to police harrassment, as in the past, gays fought back.” This event just like Philip Randolph’s “March on Washington” was a movement for social equality. It is also safe to assume that motivation and inspiration was given to this movement by Philip Randolph’s movement in the past which caused the beginning of the civil rights movement. (CH 24 – The Sixties)

The American Indian Movement was also a chain effect of the social changes of the 1960s. Like the other two movements, this was also a social movement but targets another cultural group – the Native Americans. This movement however rather than fighting for literal equality (as in equality laws and rights), is more for compensation for past deeds. All three events are linked because they are fighting for social issues, rights and equality. After the first successful social right movement, others copied and replicated their success. The first movement started a domino effect which causes all future equal right movements to be interlinked. (CH 27 – Globalization and Its Discontents)

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