On 1954, the Supreme Court made a decision that separating public schools for blacks and whites were unconstitutional. This case is known as Brown v. Board of education. This declared that all public schools be integrated thus allowing blacks and whites to go to the same school. This was a major step forward for African-Americans in winning their equal rights and freedom. However their were many public schools in the south who opposed this decision. On 1956 many southern congressmen signed the Southern Manifesto to turnover the decision made in Brown v. Board of Education. States even passed laws to block desegregation and shut down schools. The 1950s paved new ground for the equal freedom to both blacks and whites.