Lead by example!

One of the regulations Obama implemented while in office was new training requirements for new projects implemented by the EPA. For many years old buildings have been painted with lead based paint harming those who inhale the lead dust especially children.

To address this problem, the EPA required extensive training from their workers before they complete renovation on buildings built before 1978. The workers are concerned about the extent of the of the training which began last year April and the penalty fee of noncompliance which is $37,500 per day fine.In an announcement dated September 2, 1977,  “The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has culminated a major regulatory proceeding by issuing a final ban on lead-containing paint and on toys and furniture coated with such paint. This action was taken to reduce the risk of lead poisoning in children who may ingest paint chips or peelings.”.




African Americans evolve..

According to Foner, African Americans lives changed dramatically. The absence of legal segregation and their presence in areas of American life from which they were entirely excluded. African Americans now worked in large numbers alongside whites in corporate board rooms, offices, and factories. The economic boom of the late 1990’s aided African Americans enormously and their average income rose more rapidly than that of whites.
However, on the other side of things, African immigration rose and they settled in urban areas. Among these immigrants were refugees and many more were professionals fleeing to find a better opportunity. While some prospered, others found it difficult to transfer their credentials to the United States and found themselves driving taxi cabs and selling African crafts.the black unemployment rate remained doubled, half of black children lived in poverty and two thirds out of wedlock.


Change is gonna come!



The first song depicted in this blog is Sam Cooke “A Change is gonna come.” This song expresses feelings about the Civil Rights Movement. The song was released shortly after is death in 1964. The second video depicted is Lil Wayne’s song called “Georgia Bush.” The song expresses his feelings about the causes and actions of the president during Hurricane Katrina. This song was released in 2008 during the devastating event of  Hurricane Katrina.

Both songs relate to one another by showing that the government is acting unfairly to African American people. They also show how these are normal people who deserve a change in their lives. The main way for change is through equality. Situations that arise in the 1960’s could have been handled differently as well as the situation in Georgia.  Both artists sing of hope for the African American people. Sam Cook expresses this by saying he knows that change is going to come after a long time. Lil Wayne expresses this by saying that he continues to have his people in his prayers. The artists exemplify that there should be a major change among African American people and soon in their decade.


Birmingham, We shall Overcome

According to Foner, the high point in protest was in the spring of 1963. There were many demonstrations that took place in cities and towns in the south which put emphasis on the black discontent over inequality in education, employment, and housing. In one week there were 15,000 arrests in 186 cities. Birmingham was marked as one of the most dangerous cities. There were over fifty bombings of black homes and institutions since WWII. Martin Luther King was among one of the many leaders invited to come to Birmingham during these protests. He was serving a 9 day prison term in April 1963 for violating a ban on demonstrations when he developed the “Letter from Birmingham Jail”.  In this letter he related the abuses faced by black southerners from police brutality to the daily humiliation of having to explain to their children why they could not enter amusement parks or public swimming pools.

One of the significant things King has done was make a bold decision to send black schoolchildren into the streets of Birmingham. The images of what was going on in Birmingham during this time was a triumph for the civil rights movement. The events in Birmingham cause white Americans to decide whether they had more in common with fellow citizens demanding basic rights or with violent segregationists. The events in Birmingham are related to the Civil Rights movement which began in the 1950s. Martin Luther King began fighting in silent protest over the rights of African Americans during this time. The fight to gain advancement at this time was  working through massive resistance and protest.


Breaking the rules!


This video depicts the actions of brave African Americans who boycotted on buses. One individual who was the driving force of these boycotts was Rosa Parks. According to Foner on December 1, 1955, Parks refused to give up her seat on the city bus to a white rider. After is event, there began a year long boycott.

Today, we are reminded of Parks bravery. According to Foner, in 2000 Parks was named one of the 100 most significant people of the twentieth century in Time magazine. Her influence on many African Americans to stand up for their right can not be forgotten. As a result, in November 1956, the supreme court ruled segregation in public transportation unconstitutional ending the boycott in a triumph.


NATO:Protection or Destruction?

In June 1948 The United States, Britain and France introduced a separate currency in their areas in order to  be ahead of the new West German Government that would be aligned with them in the Cold War. In response the Germans cut off road and railroad traffic from the American, British, and French zones from Germany to Berlin. There was an elven month airlift that followed. When the airlift was lifted in May 1949, there was a big victory for the Truman Administration. Soon after East and West Germany merged. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization also known as NATO was established in 1948. The organization pledged mutual defense against future Soviet attack according to Foner.

The establishment of NATO is life changing to history because today the organization still makes decisions on whether or not there should be agreements on attacks today. The effects of NATO today are seen in the attacks of September 11, 2001. The response to attacks established by NATO are not always what some people in the United States would want to see. There is a lot of danger which lurks within these decisions which can affect many people in different countries across the globe. I think that establishing NATO could be helpful but also fatal depending on the weapon of choice for attack where potential innocent people could be hurt.History could have been different by the United States being subject to another attack by the Germans. There would probably have still been a division in the country and the US would have been subject to control from another country. There really is no telling how much of a difference could have been made or whether or not this would have made this world better or worse. It is up to many of us to decide out or decision in this case.


New Deal:Gone With the Wind… Or Not!

Getty Images: Picture shows FDR shifting his focus from the economy to the World War

The Cartoon illustrates FDR shifting his attention from the economical conditions at home to obtaining victory in the World War. I think the artist was trying to portray this shift in focus by illustrating  FDR in a car labeled “Win the War” which moves much faster than the horse the men are on labeled “New Deal”. The New Deal was sought out after The Great Depression to ease the effects of the economic downfall. There were many programs put into way in order to provide relief, recovery and reform. However, during the time the artist is portraying is when World War II came about.

World War II came about in December 1941. During this time efforts to get supplies as soon as possible regardless of price or quality were underway. The idea of the New Deal suddenly hit rock bottom. It was no longer needed because people suddenly needed workers in factories to develop the supplies needed in war. The gap between classes suddenly decreased due to the high employment rates. Overtime that was provided in this time of need was very helpful to many families who suffered before.


Dead End Jobs!

The first photograph shows that men in the United States were unable to get aid from the businesses in their own town. The sign is an indication that the businesses themselves were unable to take care of their own employees so men who were looking for work had to try to look elsewhere. The second photograph shows young children holding signs asking why their fathers were unable to get a job. The two photographs are significant to showing the effects of the Great Depression because it shows the severity of the situation people were in. No one was able to help anyone out, even those who were supposed to help others find jobs could not help. There was a dead end road for everyone.


Billy Sunday Wants YOU!

According to Foner, while  many American were enjoying the new statements being made in society during the 1920’s, Billy Sunday was among the flamboyant apostles who was rebelling against this. The protestants felt threatened by the decline of value and increase in visibility of Catholicism and Judaism. The Fundamentalists ended up launching a campaign to rid Protestant denominations of modernism and to combat the new individual freedoms that seemed to contradict traditional morals. Billy Sunday was able to draw very large crowds between 1900 and 1930 through speeches denouncing topics from  Darwinism to alcohol. The video below shows a speech of Sunday preaching against alcohol and its effects on the community. This video is a great visual of one of the speeches that drew many people around him.

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Red Scare!

The Red Scare as described by Foner was a changing point in America in 1919-1920. During this time there was a period of political intolerance inspired by the postwar strike wave and social tensions and fears brought up by the Russian Revolution.  General A.Palmer dispatched federal agents to raid the offices of radical and labor organizations throughout the country. During these raids, over 5,000 people were arrested and the government deported hundreds of immigrant radicals. Hoover also developed files on thousands of Americans suspected of holding radical political ideas. In early 1920 the Red Scare collapsed and imprisoned immigrants were released.

The reading and the political cartoon shown above bear striking resemblance. Foner did not leave out any details that are not portrayed in the image. The cartoon illustrates Uncle Sam spanking labor unions and strikes. This appears as though these organizations were disobedient children and had to be reprimanded which was what Foner describes in the chapter reading.



The feminist alliance that was established during the progressive era was a major impact on American society. The alliance constructed apartment houses with communal kitchens, cafeterias, and daycare centers to help free women from the burdens of their home life. These women were trying to redefine women’s freedom and succeeded in doing so.  They defined women as being a human being and a sex-being. Therefore, their attack on traditional roles of sexual behavior if women were redefined and added a new dimension to the discussion of personal freedom in society.



This picture depicts Chinese Immigrants forced to undergo an eye examination

This photo shows an Italian family arriving to the United States in 1905

The two photos above symbolize both Chinese immigration and Italian Immigration.Most of the immigrants who arrived from China were attracted to northern America for the gold rush, with time they began to open up their own businesses. In the first photo it appears as though the Chinese people were having something done against their will in order to be in the United States, this may also symbolize why there was a Chinese exclusion act that came about causing the Chinese population to drop to 62,000 in 1920.This act was a sign of hatred from americans and other immigrants. This exclusion act ended chinese immigration for nearly a century.

The second photo seems of a more peaceful way to come into the United States. The Italian family seems like they are coming in peacefully with no problems or re-enforcement as they arrive into Ellis Island. The primary reason for Italians to come into the United States was to escape the overcrowded population in Italy and to escape low wages and high taxes. From 1820 to 1978, Italian immigration amounted to 10.9 percent of the total foreign immigration.


African Americans citizens under Civil Rights Bill of 1866?

The Civil Rights Bill was created on April 19, 1866. It was passed over the veto of Andrew Johnson.The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition. As Citizens they would be able to make and enforce contracts, sue and be sued, give evidence in court ; inherit,purchase, lease, sell, hold and convey real and personal property. Persons who denied  these rights to former slaves were guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction faced a fine not exceeding $1000 or imprisonment not exceeding a year or both.

Such organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan undermined the act and it failed to enforce the rights of African Americans.  The consequences of this act were that federal penalties were not provided for, so that remedies were left to those involved. Those involved had limited access to legal help and were therefore left without aid. Therefore the act did not really help in providing equal rights.


Stock market crash:1929

The stock market crash on October 24, 1929  is remembered as one of the most devastating event in Wall Street history. In the weeks leading up to the crash, the market was very unstable.A record of 12.9 million shares were traded on that day .The Dow Jones Industrial Average partially recovered in November- December 1929 and early 1930; however reversed and crashed again.The crash began a 12 year depression that would plague the nation. People came to remember this day as Black Thursday in America and Black Friday in Europe. Combined the stock market crash and the Great Depression caused the biggest financial crisis of the 20th century.


Truth of a Nation

The voice of David Blight in the book Race and Reunion:The CIvil War in American Memory sparks certain interests in the history of the civil war because he attempts to uncover the truth to what many people try to leave behind. Many people seem to believe that slavery was not a big enough problem to have caused the division in such a powerful country. A number of people took enormous amounts of actions to make things right; some even risking their lives. Among those individuals were African Americans and those who were trying to aid in their emancipation. Blight does not overlook the heroism taken by African Americans during the Civil War. In fact, this is his central theme. Their roles ranged from fleeing from captivity in large numbers to fighting in the war for their freedom. Indeed slavery was the central problem and the cause; therefore Blight is able to bring this to the forefront in a tasteful manner and give credit to those forgotten.

Everyone would benefit from reading this book because we all should know the truth about what occurred in the past. In this day and age, people have a tendency to forget events as time moves on. Politics aids in this lack of memory by showing favoritism to certain races in America, predominately the white population. A prime example in this time was the event of Hurricane Katrina. This event was remembered in different ways by many people. The truth behind this devastating time was that aid took a long time to reach New Orleans because it was mostly populated by African Americans. Although some people would want to argue that the conditions were horrible therefore other plans had to be thought up in order for help to get into the state; others may argue that the president of the country was unaware of what was going on in the country he was running and there was no plan thought up in case of emergencies. Until this day, New Orleans is still not repaired to the beautiful lively area it once was; still leaving many African Americans homeless and forgotten.The book review sheds light on the fact that American History is very significant and all of the what may seem to be small details should be recognized because such events as Hurricane Katrina which happened many years after the Civil War will continue to occur and certain people will continue to be forgotten or left behind.


Crossing the line or making history?

Historians may be able to learn a few things on peoples tweets or wikileaks. However, how can the government get away with archiving or obtaining this information without the consent of the individual and how will they know which information will be useful later. The truth is, no one will know what the future will be like or what information can be kept for future use or purposes. What if this new form of technology can be something useful.. Even the simplest tweets or wikileaks may be helpful. They say that history should be learned in order not to repeat the same mistakes. With this being said, if we were able to view more documents from the past we may not be in certain situations. But we do have to get with the time. Tehnology has grown rapidly and we have the equipment to make impossible things become reality. Therefore why should we not see how successful it may turn out to be. It is a sticky situation because it must be within the boundries of peoples right to privacy. Do people have to agree with this. But in a way what is there to agree with? Everyone puts their stuff out on sites like twitter for random people to follow so there should not be any problem with archiving it. This situation is much more complex than it may seem. Hopefully historians would be able to get information they need and hey maybe someday one of us can end up famous.