Child labor or child slavery?

Child labor existed prior to the Progressive Era. After industrialization, many poor families sent their children to factories to work. Many children died from poor working conditions and hazardous equipments. The average age of child labor was four to sixteen years old. Many of these children did not go to school at all. During the progressive era four constitutional amendments were passed. One of these amendments outlawed child labor. The Progressive movement did succeed in creating safer work standards for all, and enacting age limits and work hour limits.


Woodrow Wilson

Woodrow Wilson, the 28th president of the United States, passed a series of laws to reform the nation. He increased the tax on rich people in order to restore the economy. Also, he passed laws to improve employee working condition, such as the Keating Owen Act and Adamson Act. These two acts prohibit child labor and started a limited working hours on railroad workers. In addition, he created two federal systems, The Federal Reverse System and Federal Trade Commission, which expanded government power to interfere in the economy. The first one is to issue currency and aid bank. The other one is an antitrust instruction to prohibit unfair business activities.



Is there anyway we can get a like button on the blog kind of like what facebook has?
I like a lot of my classmates posts and sometimes I don’t really have much of a comment on it besides that I like it and I agree with their point.
A fan button will be cool too.


New arrivals

The first image is portraying the lives of in Chinatown Mott Street in the 1905. The image was taken during the Chinese Exclusion Act, to date the only non-wartime federal law which excluded a people based on nationality, was a reaction to rising anti-Chinese sentiment. This resentment was largely a result of the willingness of the Chinese to work for far less money under far worse conditions than the white laborers and the unwillingness to “assimilate properly”.

The second image was taken in Ellis Island circa by 1905. It is describe that Ferry boats shuttled the immigrants from steamships directly to Ellis Island’s Main Registry Building. Ellis Island is a symbol of America immigration history.  Ellis island also known as” island of hope, island of tears. Because you pass the island, you have entered the U.S, and you will get hope; If you didn’t pass it, will be repatriated and is island of tears for you.


A different kind of President

Theodore Roosevelt is a very important person during the progressive era. being Elected twice as president, he has different approach towards the economy. He was known as the “trustbuster” because he enforced the government to take more regulation in the ecomony rather than no control at all. He pushed for many legislative laws to pass such as the Hepburn Act that give the ICC power to examine railroads’ records. That enabled less monopolistic domination to exist. He not only helped in economy but also established the Pure Food and Drug Act to  ensure federal food inspection.  He was also a conservationalist because he pushed for protection of the environment. He was a very typical progressive because he is the man stands for change.


He did what? That too?

The History of the Standard Oil Company originally written as 19 magazine articles in McClure’s Magazine has been compiled into a book in two volumes. The book exposed the corruption, the exploitation, business transactions and business influence John D. Rockefeller had in America.

Ida Tarbell’s famous piece in 1904, History of the Standard Oil Company, was a clever reproach towards John D. Rockefeller’s standard oil company. The published book helped bring to light the control of corrupted politics big corporations had and exposed the exploitation of factory workers. Ida Tarbell’s writing otherwise known as muckraking brought out the truth behind big corporations trying to form monopolies. Muckrakers such as Ida Tarbell ultimately helped pave the way for future reforms. For instances politics eventually passed laws and regulations restricting certain factory conditions. Later of the government began to regulate big businesses to prevent the formation of monopolies.



The feminist alliance that was established during the progressive era was a major impact on American society. The alliance constructed apartment houses with communal kitchens, cafeterias, and daycare centers to help free women from the burdens of their home life. These women were trying to redefine women’s freedom and succeeded in doing so.  They defined women as being a human being and a sex-being. Therefore, their attack on traditional roles of sexual behavior if women were redefined and added a new dimension to the discussion of personal freedom in society.


The Ludlow Massacre

April 20, 1914 dates the horrific incident of the deaths of innocent men, women, and children at Ludlow, Colorado. The coal strike against Rockefeller Colorado Fuel and Iron Company began when workers united together to demand recognition of the United Mine Workers of America (UMCA), wages increases, and an eight hour workday. When their demands were not met, miners and their families moved out of the houses provided by the Coal Company, and moved into tents. In response to the strike Rockefeller sent armed militia units to attack and raid the tents.


Tarzan goes organic

In 1906, Upton Sinclair published The Jungle, which originated as undercover work for a magazine. He described the conditions of meat factories in Chicago, as well as the poverty of workers, their living conditions, lack of social programs and more. Initially, President Theodore Roosevelt  believe Sinclair a “crackpot.” However, after sending his trusted employees he still didn’t want to regulate the industry. Due to public pressure, the Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 was passed, leading to the founding of the Food and Drug Administration. These actions paved the way for federal inspection of consumer products and expanded the responsibilities and power of the federal government.

Jane addams

Jane Addams was born in 1860, the daughter of an Illinois businessman. In the 1889, she founded Hull House in Chicago, a “settlement house” provided service to the urban poor, such as classes to teach English to immigrants, child care, nursing of the sick, and help in obtaining naturalization. By the 1910, over 400 settlement houses had been established in cities throughout the country.



This is a picture of Henry Ford between 1863- 1947. Ford developed the techniques of production and marketing that brought in the reach of ordinary Americans. He established the Ford Motor Company in 1905. The Model T and assembly line innovations revolutionized American society and molded the world we live in today. Henry Ford used the assembly techniques to produce cars so that everyone can afford it.


The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire of 1911

In the spring of 1911, a small fire broke out in the workshops of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, located in the Greenwich Village neighborhood in New York City. Because of the highly flammable fabrics in the workshops, the fire quickly spread and soon engulfed the upper floors of the Factory. Triangle’s mostly immigrant employees soon found that the doors leading out of the upper floors were locked, and that other safety precautions in the building were faulty or nonexistent. To escape the smoke and flames, many of the Factory’s workers (most of them women) jumped from the 8th and 9th floor windows to the sidewalks below. 146 people died in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire, which made people realize that the government needed to regulate industry, and led to the passage of new factory inspection laws and fire safety codes.


Regulating Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt changed the way Americans lived during the Progressive Era. He created more government regulation, and looked out for the good of the common person. Under him, Congress passes the Hepburn Act, which allowed the ICC to inspect railroad rates and regulate prices. In addition the Pure Food and Drug Act, as well as the Meat Inspection Act, were both passed that year. These laws helped check the quality and labeling of food and drugs. The Meat Inspection Act was passed because of unsanitary slaughterhouses, and the selling of spoiled meat. The idea of such government regulation was a new idea in America. Roosevelt helped the average citizen by making sure there was some level of fairness in business, but he did charge a high tax, which did not sit well with most Americans.


Mother By Choice

The Birth-Control Movement is one of the heated reforms in the 1900s. Since women were gaining power as they participate in the labor force, they were demanding more rights as a human being and as a citizen of the United States. This movement was changing the role of the government because it demanded the government to further interfere with the sexual behaviors of its citizens. It would demand the government to allow people to use contraceptive devices, which were banned during the Progressive Era. Margaret Sanger, one of the birth-control reformers, was arrested and sentenced to prison for distributing contraceptive devices. The issue of birth control was also religious, since having intercourse for the sake of pleasure was considered as a sin by Christians. By allowing the usage of birth control devices, the government would get many hassles from religious organizations.


Assignment due 2/28

1) Choose at least two posts that have been written by your classmates for the 2/23 assignment.  Write at least one comment (at least 1-2 sentences long) adding your opinion or making a new connection between the image and your reading.  If a discussion has started, jump in an add something new.
2) Write a new post discussing one person, place, or event that Foner mentions in Chapter 18 that changed the role of government in people’s lives during the Progressive Era.  Include an image and at least 1 paragraph explaining the importance of the subject.  Choose a topic that has not yet been posted about.

From China to Chinatown

As early as Colonial time, many Chinese has immigrated to colonies.  Although Chinese people were enslaved by colonist, they were part of the working class.  Until late 1800s, most Chinese people works at mine field and rail road sites.  Few Chinese people started small businesses.  In the following picture, A Chinese immigrant are selling lilies at China town.

This picture above depicted a Chinese immigrant’s life in US at 1900s.  This picture reflected the improvement of the Chinese Immigrant.


Struggles as an Immigrant

This is the room where immigrants wait during their examination process as Ellis Island.

Children are forced to work in factories in order to help the family.

Being an immigrant in the early 1900’s was simply horrible. Not only was it a struggle to be admitted into the country, but once in the country there are many more struggles ahead.  In the first picture, it shows immigrants at Ellis Island waiting for days just to go through an examination process. Once they enter the country, they have to start from scratch and make a living. Often time, it’s so difficult that children are employed in factories for very low wages. These children shown in picture two are usually treated poorly and have a high chance of death through their work at the factories.


Land of Hopes and Dreams

Photograph taken by Jacob Riis, depicting the cramped living condition's of the Irish immigrant's in 1889, New York

This photograph, take in 1910, depicts the arrival of russian-Jew’s in Ellis Island

Towards the end of the 18th century, the Russian Czar, Alexander ii was assassinated in the midst of implementing his reforms for the jewish community. After the assassination, riots began to form that mainly targeted the Jew’s and the jew’s were blamed for starting the riot’s. Due to the hate crimes that ravaged russia at that time, many Jew’s began to immigrate to different part’s of the world but mainly to the United States because of overly exaggerated rumor’s of hope and oppurtunities that can be achieved. By 1924, about two millon Jew’s immigrated to the United States to escape from persecution from their homeland.

Many Immigrants from Italy immigrated to the United State’s in search for a better life filled with economic oppurtunities. Many italian immigrants settled in different regions of America but most Italians settled in New York. By 1910 about 500,000 italian’s had settled in New York. Upon arriving, Italians occupied jobs that did not require much skill’s or education such as construction worker or janitorial services. As for their living conditions, their living conditions were horribly crowded and very unsanitary.


The Italian Immigrnats

Italian family arriving in NY in 1905.

An Italian woman ‘rag-picker’ in her living space, with her packs of junk, few possessions including her straw hat hung on the wall behind her, and a child in her lap.

Both of the people above are Italian immigrants, but the top one seems like have a better life than the woman at the bottom.During that period of time, if those immigrant can speak English and educated, probably they will have a easier life than the people who do not.


A Dollar And A Dream

Ellis Island

Immigrants at Ellis Island, circa 1900. Photograph: Bettman/Corbis

Mulberry Street 1900

Mulberry Street 1900 in New York’s 5 Points. Library of Congress photo

                The first picture is one of immigrants as they arrive on Ellis Island. They stand on line with there bags waiting to get processed. This picture represents hope. The immigrants left whatever struggles they were comming from in hope of a new, more sucessful life in the US. They come with nothing more than their bags and hope. 

                  The second picture overlooks one of the most dangerous places american history has ever seen.  The picture overlooks Mullberry Street, one of the streets in the infamous five points in NYC.  That picture represents what became a reality for many immigrants. They traded their domestic sufferings for foreign ones.  Their living spaces were overcrowded, their jobs remidial, and their dreams deffered.