9/11 digital archive

September 11th was a horrific, yet, historical day in American and world history.  It solidified the modern day era of radical ismlamic fundamentalists.  The 9/11 digital archive is a great way to recap the events that occured on that day.  The good thing about the website is that it pretty much has anything you need to know about 9/11 from people’s personal stories, to the  history regarding 9/11 and the aftermath.  The weaknesses of the website is a lot is based on personal opinions and does not talk about the facts.

Even though the 9/11 digital archive is based on personal stories, there is no real history regarding why the attack occured and how, America reacted with the war on terrorism.  The website is also aimed to be a memorial type website, rather than a site historians can use as a refernce for events.  In the future historians can use the website as a way of reflecting on how Americans reacted and what they think about terrorism.



On February 17th 2009, President Barack Obama signed his first law.  He passed the American Recovery and Reinvestment act.  This was a bill passed to provide relief to low income families, open up jobs,  and help pay for medicare, so that no one is left without it health insurance.  This was a major problem in America, however many people were and still are against it, believing that it will not help fix the issue of urban poverty.

In 1996, President Bill Clinton was just elected to his second term in office.  He had strived for universal health care before it was shut down, in 1994.  In 1997 his wife started a universal health care for children, which became very popular.  He was never able to achieve universal health care for everyone throughout his 8 years in presidency.  Clinton had  a similar goal as obama when he strived for universal health care to bring relief to the needy.




African Americans in the 1990’s

During the 1990’s there was a new era, not just in terms of politics but also in terms of freedom and equality.  African Americans became more and more free and accepted as the 90’s came along.  In the 1990s Clinton became President and the rich people in the country were prospering like crazy, while the poor people’s minimum wage failed to increase with inflation.
Even though the wealth gap was increasing, African Americans were getting more jobs and the black wealth was going up.  According to Foner more blacks where getting jobs that were formerly known as white jobs, such as being a fireman or police officer.  The number of black police officers increased from 24,000 to 65,000 from 1970 to 2000.  Blacks were getting more and more wealthy faster than whites, and the concept of racism started to fade.  Even though racism was going away, black communities still continued to struggle as half of African Americans lived in poverty, and the ones that weren’t in poverty lived in predominantly black neighborhoods.  This is a huge factor in history I believe because you cannot just expect racism and segregation to die out so quickly it takes time for the older generations to forget about the days of racism and the ideas that “blacks are lower.”  This is a huge part of history and the hardships African Americans need to go through to gain full equality.


Protest songs of the past generation

West of the Wall

World Wide Suicide

Both of these two songs serve the same purpose of informing the public on a current issue the artist as well as much of the country/world wants changed.  The song, West of the Wall serves to protest the Berlin Wall which was formed in 1961 in Germany to seperate the country into West Germany and East Germany to prevent the spread of fascismism.  The singer of this song is protesting the song because the wall prevented freedom of movement, she sings in a very casual and direct manner, as opposed to Pearl Jams “World wide suicide” which is a rather indirect subtle manner to criticize the U.S. Gov’t.  Pearl Jam is seen in his hit single as expressing his anger towards the war in Iraq and how he believes it will lead to a world genocide.  Both of the artists are seen portraying their expression of freedom and liberty throughout the world, which was and still is a modern theme in the live of all Americans.


Civil Rights act of 1964

5 days after Kennedy’s  death in 1964, Lyndon Johnson was in presidency and quickly established the Civil Rights act of 1964.  This act protected the rights of people based on their race, and sex.  This act prohibited discrimination in employment, hospitals, schools, restaurants, hotels, and theaters.  This act was a huge step in eliminating racism and discrimination as the previous decade saw much of it.  The civil rights movement which was started in 1955 was ongoing and the act of 1964 led to future movements and historical speeches such as Martin Luther King’s “I had a dream apeech” in 1968.


Golden Age era in America

In the 1950’s right after world war 2 the golden age arose.  People were finding jobs, with ease and different types of customs came about.  People started watching T.V. as well as listening to music on the regular.  The 1950’s was the period of the baby boom as many troops returned home and wanted to start families with their wives.  To today the movies we watch the music we listen to and many events we see trace back to the golden age as it was a start of new trends and ways of living life.  People became much more relaxed and no longer had to worry about supporting their families as the Depression was done and the threat of communism came down.

During the 1950's America came out of a vitctorious war and a depression and entered the golden age


Warsaw Pact vs. Nato

After World War 2 the world was seperated into to two parts, half supported the War Saw pact which was formed by the Soviet Union, which also supported Communism, and half was with Nato which was formed by the Americans.  This could have been prevented easily as Communism was a huge factor in causing the wars and major conflicts of the 1940’s and 50’s.  In 1955 when the Warsaw pact was formed, 8 eastern europe communist states were members of the warsaw pact.  Nato which was formed in 1949, still has many members and continues to support democracy around the world.


The ending of prohibition

On March 22 1933, FDR ended one of the most controversial issues of the 1920’s, “prohibition.”  He ratified the 21st amendment to allow prohibition.  This was a muh needed amendment that gave people suffering the depression jobs, as well as bringing revenue into the cities.  The abolishion of prohibition gave Roosevelt a good name and helped him earn support from cities that supported the abolishion of prohibition.  The political cartoon above depicts a man who just opened a bar in 1933 shortly after alcohol was legalized.  Legalizing the sale of alcohol was clearly not a mistake as it has been nearly 80 years since the legalization and we rarely see protestors.  The repealing of prohibiton was one of the first efforts and a giant step to ending the depression.


Poverty during The Depression

Both of these pictures convey the tough living conditions poor children had to endure during the time of the depression.  One of the pictures shows homeless children sitting on the street as their father’s were probably out looking for a source of food in order to survive.  The other picture shows a family who had to eat there christmas dinner around a small wooden table with probably just enough food to get by.  The children did not even have chairs to sit on as the poverty level was that bad.  Both of these images show how not only were adults left without jobs, but kids also had to suffer and live in ghetto’s for most of their childhoods as the depression went all the way to 1941.


Cultural Differences

In the 1920’s Fundamentalism was spreading around the U.S.  Protestants were becoming threatened by the Jewish and Catholic Immigration to the U.S.  many protestants became members of the Klu Klux Klan.  The KKK was once again formed in Atlanta in 1915.  By the mid 1920’s the KKK spread to the North and the West.  It was clear that Protestants were trying to eliminate any other religion and keep the U.S. as a Protestant majority.



League of Nations

In the center of the cartoon is Uncle Sam who represents the United States of America. In the four corners of the political cartoon are four of the other major countrites involved with the United States in the League of Nations: England, Japan, European nations, and other foreign nations not mentioned. The League of Nations was created as intergovernmental organization amongst these nations that was meant to serve as a possible peace making organziation that the nations can convene in with the notion of making peace and amending relationships between the countries. The League of Nations is commonly seen as a precursor to the United Nations which still exists today. This cartoon depicts deciet as each of the nations is taking care of the United States. The nations all have hold strings that are keeping the hands of United States (Uncle Sam) tied up, and unable to break free. This cartoonist is trying to show that the League of Nations isn’t accomplishing what it set it out to accomplish. By keeping their hands tied could symbolize the fact that the other countries aren’t letting the United States not have a voice. The League of Nations was meant to be a place where all the nations involved could speak their voice freely without objection, and the cartoonist believes that it is not being done. The League of Nations was created as a means to deter, and possibly cause a swift end to the war, yet many people saw it as being ineffective. Thus, it could be inferred that many people were pessimistic that an end to the war was near. The League of Nations handeled other minor issues as well, but overall was meant to be an open forum for discussion for any nation willing to participate.



In the Progressive era, there were a group of writers known commonly known as the muckrakers.  This group wrote public articles adressing the problems in American society.  They were very succesful at hat they did, as many rules and prohibitions changed because Americans realized how wrong American society was and that we needed a change.  The picture above depicts Joseph Pultzier, who was a Hungarian Immigrant and took over “The New York World” and transformed it into a place to bash the problems in American society


Immigration in the early generations

The difference between these two pictures is that one picture displays Ellis Island which was where all foreigner’s entering through the East Coast had to pass through.  It was rough as people had to stay there for days, weeks, and sometimes even months to get cleared to pass.  The other picture is different as it shows chinese fisherman working in the West Coast.  In the early 1900’s the Fishermen in the U.S. where from China, as they brought talent and were known for being great at what they did.


The 13th Amendment

The 13th Amendment was established on December 6th 1865.  This amendment made it illegal to own slaves.  This was one of the largest amendments considering the excessive amount of slavery in the U.S. especially the South.  From 1865 till today it has been illegal to force someone to work for you even if there is compensation  involved.

The 13th amendment was the 1st amendment that protected blacks in the American constitution.   Abraham Lincoln was the president at the time and just witnessed the civil war which earned blacks the right to live as free people.  The Civil War and was really the major player in declaring America a “free country.”  Soon after the 13th amendment came the 14th and 15th amendments that once again protected blacks.  The 14th amendment allowed blacks to declare themselves as citizens, and the 15th amendment declared that no citizen shall be denired the right to vote regardless of their race, or ethnicity.

In our modern generation people are becoming more and more accepting of others despite their color, and it all started by the prestigious 13th amendment.


Brown vs. Board of education

Brown vs. Board of education was a turning point in histroy in which the supreme court went in favor of Oliver Brown to allow his daughter to go to a “white” school.  This case declared that there shall be no racial separations in schools.


Epitome of History

David Blight’s book sounds very interesting to me.  I feel that if I open David Blight’s book I will be open to many different opinions as opposed to just the truth.  One of the things that caught my own is when Blight claims that History is written by the people who won the war.  This quote made me believe that everything I read in highschool was written by a biased opinion and this novel contains the truth about history and what happend behind closed doors.  I believe this book is good for anyone who is interested in history or for someone who is open minded enough to hear the other side of the story and not just the usual stuff you learn in class.

The book review informs us that history needs to be written down in order for it to pass down in a truthful manner.  As I mentioned earlier, many things we learn in History are biased and are written down by the people who were victorious.  Blight explains that history makes the loser seem sort of like “the villain.”

An example of history that is remembered in many different ways is the war in Gaza between Israel and the Arabs.  Many people who heard about the conflict from news stations such as CNN would believe that Israel had no right to defend itself, however many people would understand the situation and see that Hamas was launching Missiles into Israel at least 60 times a day.  Today there are still many opinions regarding this conflict.

Different memories are politically motivated an example of this is World War 2. The Germans believed they were right while back in the U.S. Americans believe they had a right to join the war.


archiving history

History, this is something that allows us to re-live our past and never forget what has happend.  Today’s version of histroy is not the same as the past.  In the past there was no technology or electronic devices used to video tape history.  All the history we know of today is either by means of writing with feather and pen or by searching the earth’s crust for signs of life.  Now-a-days We have almost anything important that has happend on video.  It is not going to be hard for archeologists in the future to learn about our present history.  In fact the people of the future will be so ahead because they can viually see our history that it will help improve theirs.  I think archiving tweets is pointless and is definately a waste of space and paper.  The only positive that can come out of it is that it would give a few people jobs.

Regarding wikileaks.  I believe this was terrible for the country because not only was the U.S. Gov’ts secrets exposed, in the eyes of others it made the U.S.(usually known as a super power) look like a chicken that can’t control it’s eggs.  Things U.S. citizens had no busy knowing about were leaked and it could only cause damage to the country as opposed to people’s curiousity being pleasured